4. Volcanogenic Sediments in the Indian Ocean

  1. J.R. Heirtzler,
  2. H.M. Bolli,
  3. T.A. Davies,
  4. J.B. Saunders and
  5. J.G. Sclater
  1. Tracy L. Vallier1 and
  2. Robert B. Kidd2

Published Online: 23 MAR 2013

DOI: 10.1029/SP009p0087

Indian Ocean Geology and Biostratigraphy

Indian Ocean Geology and Biostratigraphy

How to Cite

Vallier, T. L. and Kidd, R. B. (1977) Volcanogenic Sediments in the Indian Ocean, in Indian Ocean Geology and Biostratigraphy (eds J.R. Heirtzler, H.M. Bolli, T.A. Davies, J.B. Saunders and J.G. Sclater), American Geophysical Union, Washington, D. C.. doi: 10.1029/SP009p0087

Author Information

  1. 1

    U.S. Geological Survey, Menlo Park, California

  2. 2

    Institute of Oceanographic Sciences, Wormley, Godalming, Surrey, United Kingdom

Publication History

  1. Published Online: 23 MAR 2013
  2. Published Print: 1 JAN 1977

ISBN Information

Print ISBN: 9780875902081

Online ISBN: 9781118664919

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Summary

Volcanogenic contributions to sediments in the Indian Ocean are significant not only volumetrically but also as indicators of tectonic events. Major accumulations are related to ocean basin tectonic events such as initial stages of rifting, high spreading rates, the formation of presently aseismic ridges, and to landmass volcanism, some of which is associated with subduction. The composition of volcanism changed with time from basaltic during late Mesozoic and early Cenozoic tensional activity to silicic during the Late Cenozoic as subduction occurred beneath the Indonesian Arc. There was a causal relationship between early stages of sea floor spreading and quantities of volcanogenic sediments; thick basal piles of volcanogenic sediments accumulated during early parts of ocean basin evolution. Volcanogenic sediments on presently aseismic ridges occur both in thick basal piles and in beds higher within the sediment columns. On aseismic ridges, basal sediments probably are related to the initial formation which occurred at the intersection of a mid-ocean ridge and a transform fault, and beds higher in the sediment columns may be related to uplift which formed the present ridge topography.