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System relationships for a Panama Canal Water Supply Study

Authors

  • Lewis G. Hulman


Abstract

Increased shipping through the Panama Canal has begun to tax the capability of the water supply system to provide lockage water. To investigate the use of existing and supplemental water supplies, the operation of the canal was simulated by using detailed data on the water used during ship transits, the storage capability of the reservoir system serving the canal, the hydropower capability of each reservoir, the operating constraints for shipping, the anticipated municipal water supply diversion, the historical shipping use, the economics of shipping, the hydropower production, and the supplemental water supplies. Canal operation for different operation criteria and different shipping levels was used with chronological run-off data for simulation. This paper contains a description of the canal and its operational characteristics and a detailed summary of the system relationships.

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