SEARCH

SEARCH BY CITATION

References

  • 1
    ISAAC. Worldwide variation in prevalence of symptoms of asthma, allergic rhinoconjunctivitis, atopic eczema. Lancet 1998;351:12251232.
  • 2
    Evans R. Epidemiology and natural history of asthma, allergic rhinitis and atopic dermatitis. In: MiddletonEJr, ReedCE, EllisEF, AdkinsonNfJr, YungingerJW, BusseWW, editors. Allergy: principles and practice. 4th ed. St Louis, MO: Mosby, 1993:11091136.
  • 3
    Corrigan CJ, Kay AB. T cells and eosinophils in the pathogenesis of asthma. Immunol Today 1992;13:501506.
  • 4
    Del Prete GF, Maggi E, Parronchi P, et al. IL-4 is an essential factor for the IgE synthesis induced in vitro by human T cell clones and their supernatants. J Immunol 1988;140:41934198.
  • 5
    Sanderson CJ. Interleukin-5, eosinophils and disease. Blood 1992;79:31013109.
  • 6
    Mosmann TR, Coffman RL. TH1 and TH2 cells: different patterns of lymphokine secretion lead to different functional properties. Annu Rev Immunol 1989;7:145173.
  • 7
    Umetsu DT, DeKruyff RH. Th1 and Th2 CD4+ cells in human allergic diseases. J Allergy Clin Immunol 1997;100:16.
  • 8
    Walsh GM. Human eosinophils: their accumulation, activation and fate. Br J Haematol 1997;97:701709.
  • 9
    Bousquet J, Chanez P, Lacoste JY, et al. Eosinophilic inflammation in asthma. N Engl J Med 1990;323:10331035.
  • 10
    Kita H, Gleich GJ. The eosinophil; structure and functions. In: KaplanAP, editor. Allergy. Philadelphia, PA: Saunders, 1997:148.
  • 11
    Henocq E, Vargaftig BB. Skin eosinophilia in atopic patients. J Allergy Clin Immunol 1988;81:691695.
  • 12
    Gaga M, Frew AJ, Varney V, et al. Eosinophil activation and T lymphocyte infiltration in allergen-induced late phase skin reactions and classical delayed type hypersensitivity. J Immunol 1991;147:816822.
  • 13
    Leifferman KM. A current perspective on the roles of eosinophils in dermatologic diseases. J Am Acad Dermatol 1991;24:11011112.
  • 14
    Weller PF. Eicosanoids, cytokines and other mediators elaborated by eosinophils. In: MakinoS, FukudaT, editors. Eosinophils, biological and clinical aspects. Boca Raton, FL: CRC Press, 1993:125154.
  • 15
    Moqbel R, Levi-Schaffer F, Kay AB. Cytokine generation by eosinophils. J Allergy Clin Immunol 1994;94:11831188.
  • 16
    Church MK, Collinson AD, Okayama Y. H1 receptor antagonists: anti-allergic effects in vitro. In: SimonsFER, editor. Histamine and H1-receptor antagonists in allergic disease. Clinical Allergy and Immunology Series. New York: Marcel Dekker, 1996:117144.
  • 17
    Naclerio RM, Baroody FM. H1 receptor antagonists: antiallergic effects in humans. In: SimonsFER, editor. Histamine and H1-receptor antagonists in allergic disease. Clinical Allergy and Immunology Series. New York: Marcel Dekker, 1996:145174.
  • 18
    Fadel R, Heprin-Richard N, Rihoux J-P, Henocq E. Inhibitory effect of cetirizine 2HCl on eosinophil migration in vivo. Clin Allergy 1987;17:373379.
  • 19
    Fadel R, David B, Heprin-Richard N, Borgnon A, Rassemont R, Rihoux J-P. In vivo effects of cetirizine on cutaneous reactivity and eosinophil migration induced by platelet activating factor in man. J Allergy Clin Immunol 1990;86:314320.
  • 20
    Michel L, De Vos C, Rihoux J-P, Burtin C, Benveniste J, Dubertret L. Inhibitory effect of oral cetirizine on in vivo antigen-induced histamine and PAF-aceter release and eosinophil recruitment in human skin. J Allergy Clin Immunol 1988;82:101109.
  • 21
    Charlesworth EN, Kagey-Sobotka A, Norman PS, Lichtenstein LM. Effect of cetirizine on mast cell mediator release and cellular traffic during the cutaneous late-phase reaction. J Allergy Clin Immunol 1989;83:905912.
  • 22
    Charlesworth EN, Massey WA, Kagey-Sobotka A, Norman PS, Lichtenstein LM. Effect of H1 receptor blockade on the early and late response to cutaneous allergen challenge. J Pharmacol Exp Ther 1992;262:964970.
  • 23
    Juhlin L, Pihl-Lundin I. Effects of antihistamines on cutaneous reactions and influx of eosinophils after local injection of PAF, kallikrein, compound 48/80 and histamine in patients with chronic urticaria and healthy subjects. Acta Derm Venereol 1992;72:197200.
  • 24
    Roquet A, Raud J, Hallden G, et al. Effects of loratadine on anti-IgE-induced inflammation, histamine release and leukocyte recruitment in skin of atopics. Allergy 1995;50:414420.
  • 25
    Varney V, Gaga M, Frew AJ, De Vos C, Kay AB. The effect of a single oral dose of prednisolone or cetirizine on inflammatory cells infiltrating allergen-induced cutaneous late-phase reactions in atopic subjects. Clin Exp Allergy 1992;22:4349.
  • 26
    Taborda-Barata L, Jacobson M, Walker S, et al. Effect of cetirizine and prednisolone on cellular infiltration and cytokine mRNA expression during allergen-induced late cutaneous responses. Clin Exp Allergy 1996;26:6978.
  • 27
    Walsh GM. The effects of cetirizine on the function of inflammatory cells involved in the allergic response. Clin Exp Allergy 1997;27:4753.
  • 28
    Eda R, Sugiyama H, Hopp RJ, Bewtra AK, Townley RG. Effect of loratadine on human eosinophil function in vitro. Ann Allergy 1993;71:373378.
  • 29
    Eda R, Townley RG, Hopp RJ. Effect of terfenadine on human eosinophil and neutrophil chemotactic response and generation of superoxide. Ann Allergy 1994;73:154160.
  • 30
    Leprevost C, Capron M, De Vos C, Tomassini M, Capron A. Inhibition of eosinophil chemotaxis by a new antiallergic compound (cetirizine). Int Arch Allergy Appl Immunol 1988;87:913.
  • 31
    De Vos C, Joseph M, Leprevost C, et al. Inhibition of human eosinophil chemotaxis and of the IgE-dependent stimulation of human blood platelets by cetirizine. Int Arch Allergy Appl Immunol 1989;88:212215.
  • 32
    Jinquan T, Reimert CM, Deleuran B, Zachariae C, Simonsen C, Threstrup-Perdersen K. Cetirizine inhibits the in vitro and ex vivo chemotactic responses of T lymphocytes and monocytes. J Allergy Clin Immunol 1995;95:979986.
  • 33
    Abdelaziz M, Davalia JL, Khair OA, Bayram H, Prior AJ, Davies RJ. Effect of fexofenadine on eosinophil-induced changes in epithelial permeability and cytokine release from nasal epithelial cells of patients with seasonal allergic rhinitis. J Allergy Clin Immunol 1998;101:410420.
  • 34
    Sehmi R, Walsh GM, Hartnell A, et al. Modulation of human eosinophil chemotaxis and adhesion by antiallergic drugs in vitro. Pediatr Allergy Immunol 1993;4 Suppl 4:1318.
  • 35
    Walsh GM, Moqbel R, Hartnell A, Kay AB. Effects of cetirizine on human eosinophil and neutrophil activation in vitro. Int Arch Allergy Appl Immunol 1991;95:158162.
  • 36
    Walsh GM, Annunziato L, Frossard N, et al. Antihistamines: time to reappraise for a new millennium? Drugs 2000 (in press).
  • 37
    Okada C, Eda R, Miyagawa H, et al. Effect of cetirizine on human eosinophil superoxide generation, eosinophil chemotaxis and eosinophil peroxidase in vitro. Int Arch Allergy Immunol 1994;103:384390.
  • 38
    Ford-Hutchinson AW. Leukotriene B4 in inflammation. Immunology 1990;10:112.
  • 39
    Pacheco Y, Hosni R, Chabannes B, et al. Leukotriene B4 levels in stimulated blood neutrophils and alveolar macrophages from healthy and asthmatic subjects. Effect of beta-2 agonist therapy. Eur J Clin Invest 1992;22:732739.
  • 40
    Cheria-Sammari S, Aloui R, Gormand F, et al. Leukotriene B4 production by blood neutrophils in allergic rhinitis – effects of cetirizine. Clin Exp Allergy 1995;25:729736.
  • 41
    Kantar A, Oggiano N, Giorgi PL, Rihoux J-P. A study of the interaction between cetirizine and plasma membrane of eosinophils, neutrophils, platelets and lymphocytes using a fluorescence technique. Mediators Inflamm 1994;3:229234.
  • 42
    Montefort S, Herbert CA, Robinson C, Holgate ST. The bronchial epithelium as a target for inflammatory attack in asthma. Clin Exp Allergy 1992;22:511520.
  • 43
    Ciprandi C, Buscaglia S, Pesce G, Villaggio B, Bagnasco M, Canonica GW. Allergic subjects express intercellular adhesion molecule-1 (ICAM-1 or CD54) on epithelial cells of conjunctiva after allergen challenge. J Allergy Clin Immunol 1993;91:783792.
  • 44
    Ciprandi G, Buscaglia S, Pesce G, et al. Cetirizine reduces inflammatory cell recruitment and ICAM-1 (CD54) expression on conjunctival epithelium in both early- and late-phase reactions after allergen-specific challenge. J Allergy Clin Immunol 1995;95:612621.
  • 45
    Ciprandi G, Buscaglia S, Pronzato C, et al. Oxatomide reduces inflammatory events induced by allergen-specific conjunctival challenge. Ann Allergy 1995;75:446452.
  • 46
    Ciprandi G, Buscaglia S, Marchesi E, Danzig M, Kuss F, Canonica GW. Protective effect of loratadine on late phase reaction induced by conjunctival provocation test. Int Arch Allergy Appl Immunol 1992;907:15.
  • 47
    Ciprandi G, Buscaglia S, Iudice A, Canonica GW. Protective effect of terfenadine at different dosage on conjunctival provocation test. Allergy 1992;47:309312.
  • 48
    Fasce L, Ciprandi G, Pronzato C, et al. Cetirizine reduces ICAM-1 on epithelial cells during nasal minimal persistent inflammation in asymptomatic children with mite-allergic asthma. Int Arch Allergy Immunol 1996;109:272276.
  • 49
    Haye R, Annesen J, Jahnsen FL, Faestad IN, Burtin B, Duby C. Effect of cetirizine on nasal polyps and their associated symptoms [Abstract]. Allergy 1995;50:103.
  • 50
    Djukanovic R, Roche WR, Wilson JW, et al. Mucosal inflammation in asthma. Am Rev Respir Dis 1990;142:434457.
  • 51
    Jeffrey PK, Wardlaw AJ, Nelson FC, Collins JV, Kay AB. Bronchial biopsies in asthma. Am Rev Respir Dis 1989;140:17451753.
  • 52
    Ciprandi G, Buscaglia S, Pesce BS, et al. Minimal persistent inflammation is present at mucosal level in patients with asymptomatic rhinitis and mite allergy. J Allergy Clin Immunol 1995;96:971979.
  • 53
    Staunton DE, Merluzzi VJ, Rothlein R, Barton R, Marlin SD, Springer TA. A cell adhesion molecule ICAM-1 is the major surface receptor for rhinoviruses. Cell 1989;56:849.
  • 54
    Bardin PK, Johnston SL, Pattemore PK. Viruses as precipitants of asthma symptoms. II. Physiology and mechanisms. Clin Exp Allergy 1992;22:809822.
  • 55
    Pattemore PK, Johnston SL, Bardin PK. Viruses as precipitants of asthma symptoms. I. Epidemiology. Clin Exp Allergy 1992;22:325336.
  • 56
    Canonica GW, Ciprandi G, Pesce GP, Buscaglia S, Paolieri F, Bagnasco M. ICAM-1 on epithelial cells in allergic subjects: a hallmark of allergic inflammation. Int Arch Allergy Immunol 1995;107:99102.
  • 57
    Eggleston PA. Upper airway inflammatory diseases and bronchial hyperresponsiveness. J Allergy Clin Immunol 1988;81:10361041.
  • 58
    Fasce L, Ciprandi G, Pronzato C, et al. Cetirizine reduces ICAM-1 on epithelial cells during nasal minimal persistent inflammation in asymptomatic children with mite-allergic asthma. Int Arch Allergy Immunol 1996;109:272276.
  • 59
    Holgate ST, Finnerty JP. Antihistamines in asthma. J Allergy Clin Immunol 1989;83:537547.
  • 60
    Meltzer EO. To use or not to use antihistamines in patients with asthma. [Editorial] Ann Allergy 1990;64:183186.
  • 61
    Akagi K, Townley RG. Spontaneous histamine-release and histamine content in normal subjects and subjects with asthma. J Allergy Clin Immunol 1989;83:742749.
  • 62
    Casale TB, Wood D, Richerson HB. Direct evidence of a role for mast cells in pathogenesis of antigen-induced bronchoconstriction. J Clin Invest 1987;80:15071511.
  • 63
    Casale TB, Wood D, Richerson HB. Elevated bronchoalveolar lavage fluid histamine levels in allergic asthmatics are associated with methacholine bronchial hyperresponsiveness. J Clin Invest 1987;79:11971203.
  • 64
    Malick A, Grant J. Antihistamines in the treatment of asthma. Allergy 1997;52 Suppl 34:55.
  • 65
    Wood-Baker R, Holgate ST. The comparative actions and adverse effect profile of single doses of H1-receptor antihistamines in the airways and skin of subjects with asthma. J Allergy Clin Immunol 1993;91:10051014.
  • 66
    Wood-Baker R, Holgate ST. Dose-response relationship of the H1-histamine antagonist, ebastine, against histamine- and methacholine-induced bronchoconstriction in patients with asthma. Agents Actions 1990;30(1–2):284286.
  • 67
    Chyrek-Borowska S, Siergiejko Z, Michalska I. The effects of a new generation of H1 antihistamines (cetirizine and loratadine) on histamine release and the bronchial response to histamine in atopic patients. J Investig Allergol Clin Immunol 1995;5:103107.
  • 68
    Ghosh SK, Rafferty P, De Vos C, Patel KR. Effect of cetirizine, a potent H1 antagonist, on platelet activating factor induced bronchoconstriction in asthma. Clin Exp Allergy 1993;23:524527.
  • 69
    Redier H, Chanez P, De Vos C, et al. Inhibitory effect of cetirizine on the bronchial eosinophil recruitment induced by allergen inhalation challenge in allergic patients with asthma. J Allergy Clin Immunol 1992;90:215224.
  • 70
    Wasserfallen JB, Leuenberger P, Pécoud A. Effect of cetirizine, a new H1 antihistamine, on the early and late allergic reactions in a bronchial provocation test with allergen. J Allergy Clin Immunol 1993;91:11891197.
  • 71
    Bruttmann G, Pedrali P, Arendt C, Rihoux J-P. Protective effect of cetirizine in patients suffering from pollen asthma. Ann Allergy 1990;64:224228.
  • 72
    Bousquet J, Emonot A, Germouty J, et al. Double-blind multicenter study of cetirizine in grass-pollen-induced asthma. Ann Allergy 1990;65:504508.
  • 73
    Dijkman JH, Hekking PR, Molkenboer JF, et al. Prophylactic treatment of grass pollen-induced asthma with cetirizine. Clin Exp Allergy 1990;20:483490.
  • 74
    Rafferty P, Ghosh SK, De Vos C, Patel KR. Effect of oral and inhaled cetirizine in allergen-induced bronchoconstriction. Clin Exp Allergy 1993;23:528531.
  • 75
    Kopferschmitt-Kubler MC, Couchot A, Pauli G. Evaluation of the effect of oral cetirizine on antigen-induced immediate asthmatic response. Ann Allergy 1990;65:501503.
  • 76
    Hoshino M, Nakamura Y. The effect of azelastine on the infiltration of inflammatory cells into the bronchial mucosa and clinical changes in patients with bronchial asthma. Int Arch Allergy Immunol 1997;114:285292.
  • 77
    Busse WW, Middleton E, Storms W, et al. Corticosteroid-sparing effect of azelastine in the management of bronchial asthma. Am J Respir Crit Care Med 1996;153:122127.
  • 78
    Chervinsky P, Grossman J, Freitag JJ. Duration of action of a single dose of azelastine in patients with chronic asthma. J Asthma 1995;32:141145.
  • 79
    Grant JA, Nicodemus CF, Findlay SR, et al. Cetirizine in patients with seasonal rhinitis and concomitant asthma: prospective, randomized, placebo controlled trial. J Allergy Clin Immunol. 1995;95:923932.
  • 80
    Aaronson DW. Evaluation of cetirizine in patients with allergic rhinitis and perennial asthma. Ann Allergy Asthma Immunol 1996;76:440446.
  • 81
    Spector SL, Nicodemus CF, Corren J, et al. Comparison of the bronchodilatory effects of cetirizine, albuterol and both together versus placebo in patients with mild to moderate asthma. J Allergy Clin Immunol 1995;96:174181.
  • 82
    Kjellman N-IM. Is there a place for antihistamines in the treatment of perennial asthma? Pediatr Allergy Immunol 1993;4 Suppl 4:3843.
  • 83
    Rafferty P, Jackson L, Smith R, Holgate ST. Terfenadine, a potent antihistamine H1-receptor antagonist in the treatment of grass pollen-sensitive asthma. Br J Pharmacol 1990;30:229235.
  • 84
    Taytard A, Beaumont D, Pujet JC, Sapene M, Lewis PJ. Treatment of bronchial asthma with terfenadine; a randomized controlled trial. Br J Pharmacol 1987;24:743746.
  • 85
    Kroll VM, Nothofer B, Werdermann K. Allergic bronchial asthma treated with loratadine. Fortschr Med 1993;111:7678.
  • 86
    Dirksen A, Engel T, Frolund L, et al. Effect of a non-sedative antihistamine (loratadine) in moderate asthma. A double-blind, controlled clinical crossover trial. Allergy 1989;44:566571.
  • 87
    Ekström T, Osterman K, Zetterström O. Lack of effect of loratadine on moderate to severe asthma. Ann Allergy Asthma Immunol 1995;75:287298.
  • 88
    Corren J, Harris AG, Aaronson D, et al. Efficacy and safety of loratadine plus pseudoephedrine in patients with seasonal allergic rhinitis and mild asthma. J Allergy Clin Immunol 1997;100(6 Pt 1):781788.
  • 89
    ETAC Study Group. Allergic factors associated with the development of asthma and the influence of cetirizine on this progression in a double-blind, randomised, placebo-controlled trial: first results of ETAC. Pediatr Allergy Immunol 1998;9:116124.
  • 90
    Arnold R, König B, König W. G-proteins in allergy. Clin Exp Allergy 1998;27 Suppl 2:17.