• 1
    International Study of Asthma and Allergies in Childhood (ISAAC) Steering Committee. Worldwide variation in prevalence of symptoms of asthma, allergic rhinoconjunctivitis, and atopic eczema: ISAAC. Lancet 1998;351:12251232.DOI: 10.1016/s0140-6736(97)07302-9
  • 2
    Beasley R, Crane J, Lai CKW, Pearce N. Prevalence and etiology of asthma. J Allergy Clin Immunol 2000;105:S466S472.
  • 3
    Sly RM. Changing prevalence of allergic rhinitis and asthma. Ann Allergy Asthma Immunol 1999;82:233252.
  • 4
    Van Cauwenberge P, Bachert C, Passalacqua G, et al. Consensus statement on the treatment of allergic rhinitis. Allergy 2000;55:116134.DOI: 10.1034/j.1398-9995.2000.00526.x
  • 5
    World Health Organization. Bronchial asthma. WHO Fact Sheet no. 206. Revised Jan 2000.
  • 6
    Pearce N, Pekkanen J, Beasley R. How much asthma is really attributable to atopy? Thorax 1999;55:268272.
  • 7
    Platts-Mills TAE, Vaughan JW, Carter MC, Woodfolk JA. The role of intervention in established allergy: avoidance of indoor allergens in the treatment of chronic allergic disease. J Allergy Clin Immunol 2000;106:787804.
  • 8
    Pawankar R, Okuda M, Yssel H, Okumura K, Ra C. Nasal mast cells in perennial allergic rhinitics exhibit increased expression of the Fc epsilonRI, CD40L, IL-4, and IL-13, and can induce IgE synthesis in B cells. J Clin Invest 1997;99:14921499.
  • 9
    Tunon-de-Lara JM, Redington AE, Bradding P, et al. Dendritic cells in normal and asthmatic airways: expression of the α subunit of the high affinity immunoglobulin E receptor (FcεRI-α). Clin Exp Allergy 1996;26:648655.
  • 10
    Katoh N, Kraft S, Wessendorf JH, Bieber T. The high-affinity IgE receptor (FcepsilonRI) blocks apoptosis in normal human monocytes. J Clin Invest 2000;105:183190.
  • 11
    Van Den Heuvel MM, Vanhee DD, Postmus PE, Hoefsmit EC, Beelen RH. Functional and phenotypic differences of monocyte-derived dendritic cells from allergic and nonallergic patients. J Allergy Clin Immunol 1998;101:9095.
  • 12
    Maurer D, Ebner C, Reininger B, et al. The high affinity IgE receptor (FcεRI) mediates IgE-dependent allergen presentation. J Immunol 1995;154:62856290.
  • 13
    Shibaki A. FcεRI on dendritic cells: a receptor which links IgE mediated allergic reaction and T cell mediated cellular response. J Dermatol Sci 1998;20:2938.DOI: 10.1016/s0923-1811(99)00003-1
  • 14
    Rajakulasingam K, Durham SR, O'Brien F, et al. Enhanced expression of high-affinity IgE receptor (FcεRI) α chain in human allergen-induced rhinitis with co-localization to mast cells, macrophages, eosinophils, and dendritic cells. J Allergy Clin Immunol 1997;100:7886.
  • 15
    Rajakulasingam K, Till S, Ying S, et al. Increased expression of high affinity IgE (FcεRI) receptor-α chain mRNA and protein-bearing eosinophils in human allergen-induced atopic asthma. Am J Respir Crit Care Med 1998;158:233240.
  • 16
    Dombrowicz D, Woerly G, Capron M. IgE receptors on human eosinophils. In: MaroneG, editors. Human eosinophils. Biological and clinical aspects. Chem Immunol 2000;76:6376.
  • 17
    Campbell AM, Vachier I, Chanez P, et al. Expression of the high-affinity receptor for IgE on bronchial epithelial cells of asthmatics. Am J Respir Cell Mol Biol 1998;19:9297.
  • 18
    Sihra BS, Kon OM, Grant JA, Kay AB. Expression of high-affinity IgE receptors (FcεRI) on peripheral blood basophils, monocytes, and eosinophils in atopic and nonatopic subjects: relationship to total serum IgE concentrations. J Allergy Clin Immunol 1997;99:699706.
  • 19
    Menz G, Ying S, Durham SR, et al. Molecular concepts of IgE-initiated inflammation in atopic and nonatopic asthma. Allergy 1998;53 Suppl 45:1521.
  • 20
    Humbert M, Grant JA, Taborda-Barata L, et al. High-affinity IgE receptor (FcεRI)-bearing cells in bronchial biopsies from atopic and nonatopic subjects. Am J Respir Crit Care Med 1996;153:19311937.
  • 21
    Beeh KM, Ksoll M, Buhl R. Elevation of total serum immunoglobulin E is associated with asthma in nonallergic individuals. Eur Respir J 2000;16:609614.
  • 22
    Bradding P & Holgate ST. Immunopathology and human mast cell cytokines. Crit Rev Oncol Hematol 1999;31:119133.DOI: 10.1016/s1040-8428(99)00010-4
  • 23
    Milgrom H, Fick RB, Su JQ, et al. Treatment of allergic asthma with monoclonal anti-IgE antibody. N Engl J Med 1999;341:19661973.
  • 24
    Busse W, Corren J, Lanier BQ, et al. rhuMAb-E25 (E25), a novel therapy for the treatment of allergic asthma [Abstract]. J Allergy Clin Immunol 2000;105(6, pt 1):5.
  • 25
    Solèr M, Matz J, Townley RG, et al. The anti-IgE antibody omalizumab reduces exacerbations and steroid requirement in allergic asthmatics. Eur Respir J 2001 (in press).
  • 26
    Milgrom H, Nayak A, Berger W, et al. The efficacy and safety of rhuMAb-E25 in children with allergic asthma [Abstract]. l 2000;105(6, pt 1):4.
  • 27
    Ädelroth E, Rak S, Haahtela T, et al. Recombinant humanized mAb-E25, an anti-IgE mAb, in birch pollen-induced seasonal allergic rhinitis. J Allergy Clin Immunol 2000;106:253259.
  • 28
    Casale T, Condemi J, Miller SD, et al. rhuMAb-E25 in the treatment of seasonal allergic rhinitis (SAR) [Abstract]. Ann Allergy Asthma Immunol 1999;82:75.
  • 29
    Casale TB, Racine A, Sallas W, et al. Relationship between the clinical efficacy of rhuMAb-E25 (E25) and serum free IgE in seasonal allergic rhinitis. J Allergy Clin Immunol 2000;105(1, pt 2):Abstract 1052.
  • 30
    Presta LG, Lahr SJ, Shields RL, et al. Humanization of an antibody directed against IgE. J Immunol 1993;151:26232632.
  • 31
    Presta L, Shields R, O'Connell L, et al. The binding site on human immunoglobulin E for its high affinity receptor. J Biol Chem 1994;269:2636826373.
  • 32
    Shields RL, Whether WR, Zioncheck K, et al. Inhibition of allergic reactions with antibodies to IgE. Int Arch Allergy Immunol 1995;107:308312.
  • 33
    MacGlashan DW, Bochner BS, Adelman DC, et al. Down-regulation of FcεRI expression on human basophils during in vivo treatment of atopic patients with anti-IgE antibody. J Immunol 1997;158:14381445.
  • 34
    Boulet L-P, Chapman KR, Côté J, et al. Inhibitory effects of an anti-IgE antibody E25 on allergen-induced early asthmatic response. Am J Respir Crit Care Med 1997;155:18351840.
  • 35
    Fahy JV, Fleming EH, Wong HH, et al. The effect of an anti-IgE monoclonal antibody on the early- and late-phase responses to allergen inhalation in asthmatic subjects. Am J Respir Crit Care Med 1997;155:18281834.
  • 36
    Babu KS & Arshad SH. IgE – a marker of the late asthmatic response? Clin Exp Allergy 2001;31:182185.
  • 37
    Fick RB, Rohane PW, Gupta N, et al. Anti-inflammatory effects of a recombinant monoclonal anti-IgE (E25) in asthma [Abstract]. Am J Respir Crit Care Med 2000;161:A199.
  • 38
    Busse WW, Fahy JV, Fick RB. A pilot study of the effects of an anti-IgE antibody (E25) on airway inflammation in moderate-severe asthma [Abstract]. Am J Respir Crit Care Med 1998;157:A456.
  • 39
    Garman SC, Wurzburg BA, Tarchevskaya SS, Kinet J-P, Jardetzky TS. Structure of the Fc fragment of human IgE bound to its high-affinity receptor FcεRIα. Nature 2000;406:259266.
  • 40
    Liu J, Lester P, Builder S, Shire SJ. Characterization of complex formation by humanized anti-IgE monoclonal antibody and monoclonal human IgE. Biochemistry 1995;34:1047410482.
  • 41
    Fox JA, Hotaling TE, Struble C, Ruppel J, Bates DJ, Schoenhoff MB. Tissue distribution and complex formation with IgE of an anti-IgE antibody after intravenous administration in cynomolgus monkeys. J Pharmacol Exp Ther 1996;279:10001008.
  • 42
    Casale TB, Bernstein IL, Busse WW, et al. Use of an anti-IgE humanized monoclonal antibody in ragweed-induced allergic rhinitis. J Allergy Clin Immunol 1997;100:110121.
  • 43
    Fahy JV, Cockcroft DW, Boulet L-P, et al. Effect of aerosolized anti-IgE (E25) on airway responses to inhaled allergen in asthmatic subjects. Am J Respir Crit Care Med 1999;160:10231027.
  • 44
    Matz J, Fox H, Thirlwell J. Omalizumab (Xolair®) increased FEV1 in asthma patients compared to placebo. J Allergy Clin Immunol 2001;107(2, pt 2):Abstract 1028.
  • 45
    Juniper EF, Guyatt GH, Ferrie PJ, et al. Measuring quality of life in asthma. Am Rev Respir Dis 1993;147:832838.
  • 46
    Juniper EF, Guyatt GH, Feeny DH, et al. Measuring quality of life in children with asthma. Qual Life Res 1996;5:3546.
  • 47
    Juniper EF, Guyatt GH, Willan A, Griffith LE. Determining a minimal important change in a disease-specific quality of life questionnaire. J Clin Epidemiol 1994;47:8187.
  • 48
    Buhl R, Kunkel G, Solèr M, et al. rhuMAb-E25 improves asthma-specific quality of life in patients with allergic asthma [Abstract]. Eur Respir J 2000;16 (Suppl 31):465s.
  • 49
    Nayak A, Milgrom H, Berger W, et al. rhuMAb-E25 (E25) improves quality of life (QoL) in children with allergic asthma [Abstract]. Am J Respir Crit Care Med 2000;161:A504.
  • 50
    Wolfe JD, Fox H, Thirlwell J. Omalizumab demonstrates inhaled corticosteroid (ICS) sparing in asthma across a range of disease severities. J Allergy Clin Immunol 2001;107(2, pt 2):Abstract 357.
  • 51
    Juniper EF & Guyatt GH. Development and testing of a new measure of health status for clinical trials in rhinoconjunctivitis. Clin Exp Allergy 1991;21:7783.
  • 52
    Casale T, Condemi J, Bernstein JA, et al. Safety of readministration of rhuMAb-E25 in seasonal allergic rhinitis (SAR). Ann Allergy Asthma Immunol 2000;Jan (abstract presented at ACAAI November 1999).
  • 53
    Chervinsky P, Busse W, Casale T, et al. Xolair® in the treatment of perennial allergic rhinitis. J Allergy Clin Immunol 2001;107(2, pt 2):Abstract 513.