• 1
    Petz LD. Immunologic reactions of humans to cephalosporins. Postgrad Med J 1971;47:6469.
  • 2
    Anne S, Reisman RE. Risk of administering cephalosporin antibiotics to patients with histories of penicillin allergy. Ann Allergy Asthma Immunol 1995;74:167170.
  • 3
    Khoury L, Warrington R. The multiple drug allergy syndrome: a matched-control retrospective study in patients allergic to penicillin. J Allergy Clin Immunol 1996;98:462–464.
  • 4
    Pichichero ME, Pichichero DM. Diagnosis of penicillin, amoxicillin, and cephalosporin allergy: Reliability of examination assessed by skin testing and oral challenge. J Pediatr 1998;132:137143.
  • 5
    Patriarca G, Schiavino D, Nucera E, Milani A. Positive allergological tests may turn negative with no further exposure to the specific allergen: a long-term, prospective, follow-up study in patients allergic to penicillin. Invest Allergol Clin Immunol 1996;6:162165.
  • 6
    Saxon A, Beall GN, Rohr AS, Adelman DC. Immediate hypersensitivity reactions to beta-lactam antibiotics. Ann Intern Med 1987;107:204215.
  • 7
    Kloberdanz B, Bennett CR, McDonald AE. Management of anaphylactic shock after a single oral dose of penicillin: report of case. JADA 1986;112:6062.
  • 8
    Roberts J, Bianco MM, Fine J. Fatal anaphylactic reaction to oral penicillin: report of a case. JADA 1985;110:505506.
  • 9
    Grouhi M, Hummel D, Roifman CM. Anaphylactic reaction to oral cefaclor in a child. Pediatrics 1999;103:e50.
  • 10
    Macy E, Richter PK, Falkoff R, Zeiger R. Skin testing with penicilloate and penilloate prepared by an improved method: Amoxicillin oral challenge in patients with negative skin test responses to penicillin reagents. J Allergy Clin Immunol 1997;100:586591.
  • 11
    Macy E. Elective penicillin skin testing and amoxicillin challenge: Effect on outpatient antibiotic use, cost, and clinical outcomes. J Allergy Clin Immunol 1998;102:281285.
  • 12
    MacLaughlin EJ, Saseen JJ, Malone DC. Costs of beta-lactam allergies. Arch Fam Med 2000;9:722726.
  • 13
    Johansson SGO, Hourihane JO'B, Bousquet J et al. A revised nomenclature for allergy. Allergy 2001;56:813824.
  • 14
    Nelson HS, Szefler SJ, Jacobs J, Huss K, Shapiro G, Sternberg AL, for the childhood asthma management program research group. The relationships among environmental allergen sensitization, allergen exposure, pulmonary function, and bronchial hyperresponsiveness in the Childhood Asthma Management Program. J Allergy Clin Immunol 1999;104:775785
  • 15
    Macy E. Risks of penicillin skin testing. Ann Allergy Asthma Immunol 2000;85:330331.
  • 16
    Solensky R, Earl HS, Gruchalla RS. Penicillin allergy: prevalence of vague history in skin test-positive patients. Ann Allergy Asthma Immunol 2000;85:195199.
  • 17
    Mendelson LM, Ressler C, Rosen JP, Selcow JE. Routine elective penicillin allergy skin testing in children and adolescents: study of sensitization. J Allergy Clin Immunol 1984;73:7681.
  • 18
    Torres MJ, Romano A, Mayorga C et al. Diagnostic evaluation of a large group of patients with immediate allergy to penicillins: the role of skin testing. Allergy 2001;56:850856.
  • 19
    Budavari S, O'Neil MJ, Smith A, Heckelman PE, Kinneary JF, eds. The Merck Index, 12th edn, Whitehouse Station, NJ: Merck Research Laboratories, 1996.
  • 20
    Solensky R, Earl HS, Gruchalla RS. Lack of penicillin resensitization in patients with a history of penicillin allergy after receiving repeated penicillin courses. Arch Intern Med 2002;162:822826.
  • 21
    Kamada MM, Twarog F, Leung DYM. Multiple antibiotic sensitivity in a pediatric population. Allergy Proc 1992;5:347350.
  • 22
    Gruchalla RS. Approach to the patient with multiple antibiotic sensitivities. Allergy Asthma Proc 2000;21:3944.
  • 23
    Herman R, Jick H. Cutaneous reaction rate to penicillins – oral versus parenteral. Cutis 1979;24:232233.
  • 24
    Kelkar PS, Li JTC. Cephalosporin allergy. N Engl J Med 2001;345:804809.