• allergic disease;
  • allergic rhinitis;
  • budesonide;
  • fatigue;
  • nasal congestion;
  • sleep disordered breathing;
  • sleep disturbance;
  • somnolence;
  • topical corticosteroids

Background:  Improving quality of life is considered to be a major endpoint and motivation for clinical intervention in patients with perennial allergic rhinitis (PAR). In addition to classical symptoms of congestion, pruritus, and rhinorrhea, patients will often complain of not being able to sleep well at night and of feeling fatigued during the day. Like sleep apnea, PAR has also been shown to cause sleep disturbance and consequently worsen daytime fatigue and somnolence.

Hypothesis: It is proposed that by decreasing nasal obstruction due to allergic rhinitis by treating with the topical steroid budesonide, symptoms of daytime fatigue and somnolence can be improved.

Methods: Twenty-two subjects were enrolled in a double-blind, placebo-controlled, crossover study using Baalam's design. Patients were treated with either budesonide 128 μg/day or placebo. Subjective data include the Epworth Sleepiness Scale, Functional Outcomes of Sleep Questionnaire, Rhino-conjunctivitis Quality of Life Questionnaire, and a daily diary recording nasal symptoms, sleep problems, and daytime fatigue.

Results: The results illustrated that the topical nasal corticosteroid significantly improved daytime fatigue (P = 0.03), somnolence (P = 0.02), and quality of sleep (P = 0.05) compared to placebo in patients suffering from PAR.

Summary: Budesonide is able to improve congestion, sleep, and daytime somnolence.