• 1
    Gustafsson LE, Leone AM, Persson MG, Wiklund NP, Moncada S. Endogenous nitric oxide is present in the exhaled air of rabbits, guinea pigs and humans. Biochem Biophys Res Commun 1991;181: 852857.
  • 2
    Alving K, Weitzberg E, Lundberg JM. Increased amount of nitric oxide in exhaled air of asthmatics. Eur Respir J 1993;6: 13681370.
  • 3
    Lundberg JO, Farkas-Szallasi T, Weitzberg E, Rinder J, Lidholm J, Anggaard A et al. High nitric oxide production in human paranasal sinuses. Nat Med 1995;1: 370373.
  • 4
    Slutzky AS, Drazen JM, Silkoff PE, Gaston BM, Holden W, Romero FA et al. Recommendations for standardized procedures for the online and offline measurement of exhaled lower respiratory nitric oxide and nasal nitric oxide in adults and children – 1999. Am J Respir Crit Care Med 1999;160: 21042117.
  • 5
    Kharitonov S, Alving K, Barnes PJ. Exhaled and nasal nitric oxide measurements: recommendations. The European Respiratory Society Task Force. Eur Respir J 1997;10: 16831693.
  • 6
    Arnal JF, Didier A, Rami J, M'Rini C, Charlet JP, Serrano E et al. Nasal nitric oxide is increased in allergic rhinitis. Clin Exp Allergy 1997;27: 358362.
  • 7
    Kharitonov SA, Rajakulasingam K, O'Connor B, Durham SR, Barnes PJ. Nasal nitric oxide is increased in patients with asthma and allergic rhinitis and may be modulated by nasal glucocorticoids. J Allergy Clin Immunol 1997;99: 5864.
  • 8
    Djupesland PG, Chatkin JM, Qian W, Cole P, Zamel N, McClean P, et al. Aerodynamic influences on nasal nitric oxide output measurements. Acta Otolaryngol 1999;119: 479485.
  • 9
    Lundberg JO, Nordvall SL, Weitzberg E, Kollberg H, Alving K. Exhaled nitric oxide in paediatric asthma and cystic fibrosis. Arch Dis Child 1996;75: 323326.
  • 10
    Henriksen AH, Sue-Chu M, Lingaas Holmen T, Langhammer A, Bjermer L. Exhaled and nasal NO levels in allergic rhinitis: relation to sensitization, pollen season and bronchial hyperresponsiveness. Eur Respir J 1999;13: 301306.
  • 11
    Maniscalco M, Sofia M, Carratu L, Higenbottam T. Effect of nitric oxide inhibition on nasal airway resistance after nasal allergen challenge in allergic rhinitis. Eur J Clin Invest 2001;31: 462466.
  • 12
    Kawamoto H, Takeno S, Yajin K. Increased expression of inducible nitric oxide synthase in nasal epithelial cells in patients with allergic rhinitis. Laryngoscope 1999;109: 20152020.
  • 13
    Kawamoto H, Takumida M, Takeno S, Watanabe H, Fukushima N, Yajin K. Localization of nitric oxide synthase in human nasal mucosa with nasal allergy. Acta Otolaryngol Suppl 1998;539: 6570.
  • 14
    Kang BH, Chen SS, Jou LS, Weng PK, Wang HW. Immunolocalization of inducible nitric oxide synthase and 3-nitrotyrosine in the nasal mucosa of patients with rhinitis. Eur Arch Otorhinolaryngol 2000;257: 242246.
  • 15
    Takeno S, Osada R, Furukido K, Chen JH, Yajin K. Increased nitric oxide production in nasal epithelial cells from allergic patients – RT-PCR analysis and direct imaging by a fluorescence indicator: DAF-2 DA. Clin Exp Allergy 2001;31: 881888.
  • 16
    Zetterquist W, Pedroletti C, Lundberg JO, Alving K. Salivary contribution to exhaled nitric oxide. Eur Respir J 1999;13: 327333.
  • 17
    Palm JP, Graf P, Lundberg JO, Alving K. Characterization of exhaled nitric oxide: introducing a new reproducible method for nasal nitric oxide measurements. Eur Respir J 2000;16: 236241.
  • 18
    Palm J, Lidman C, Graf P, Alving K, Lundberg JO. Nasal nitric oxide is reduced in patients with HIV. Acta Otolaryngol 2000;120: 420423.
  • 19
    Sippel JM, Giraud GD, Holden WE. Nasal administration of the nitric oxide synthase inhibitor l-NAME induces daytime somnolence. Sleep 1999;22: 786788.
  • 20
    Baraldi E, Azzolin NM, Carra S, Dario C, Marchesini L, Zacchello F. Effect of topical steroids on nasal nitric oxide production in children with perennial allergic rhinitis: a pilot study. Respir Med 1998;92: 558561.
  • 21
    Lundberg JO, Weitzberg E, Rinder J, Rudehill A, Jansson O, Wiklund NP, et al. Calcium-independent and steroid-resistant nitric oxide synthase activity in human paranasal sinus mucosa. Eur Respir J 1996;9: 13441347.
  • 22
    Olin AC, Hellgren J, Karlsson G, Ljungkvist G, Nolkrantz K, Toren K. Nasal nitric oxide and its relationship to nasal symptoms, smoking and nasal nitrate. Rhinology 1998;36: 117121.
  • 23
    Colantonio D, Brouillette L, Parikh A, Scadding GK. Paradoxical low nasal nitric oxide in nasal polyposis. Clin Exp Allergy 2002;32: 698701.
  • 24
    Rinder J. Sensory neuropeptides and nitric oxide in nasal vascular regulation. Acta Physiol Scand Suppl 1996;632: 145.
  • 25
    Jorres RA. Modelling the production of nitric oxide within the human airways. Eur Respir J 2000;16: 555560.
  • 26
    Albert J, Schedin U, Lindqvist M, Melcher A, Hjemdahl P, Frostell C. Blockade of endogenous nitric oxide production results in moderate hypertension, reducing sympathetic activity and shortening bleeding time in healthy volunteers. Acta Anaesthesiol Scand 1997;41: 11041113.
  • 27
    Martin U, Bryden K, Devoy M, Howarth P. Increased levels of exhaled nitric oxide during nasal and oral breathing in subjects with seasonal rhinitis. J Allergy Clin Immunol 1996;97: 768772.
  • 28
    Gratziou C, Lignos M, Dassiou M, Roussos C. Influence of atopy on exhaled nitric oxide in patients with stable asthma and rhinitis. Eur Respir J 1999;14: 897901.
  • 29
    Gratziou C, Rovina N, Lignos M, Vogiatzis I, Roussos C. Exhaled nitric oxide in seasonal allergic rhinitis: influence of pollen season and therapy. Clin Exp Allergy 2001;31: 409416.
  • 30
    Bartley J, Fergusson W, Moody A, Wells AU, Kolbe J. Normal adult values, diurnal variation, and repeatability of nasal nitric oxide measurement. Am J Rhinol 1999;13: 401405.
  • 31
    Menache MG, Hanna LM, Gross EA, Lou SR, Zinreich SJ, Leopold DA et al. Upper respiratory tract surface areas and volumes of laboratory animals and humans: considerations for dosimetry models. J Toxicol Environ Health 1997;50: 475506.
  • 32
    Silkoff PE, Sylvester JT, Zamel N, Permutt S. Airway nitric oxide diffusion in asthma: role in pulmonary function and bronchial responsiveness. Am J Respir Crit Care Med 2000;161: 12181228.
  • 33
    Lundberg JO, Weitzberg E, Lundberg JM, Alving K. Nitric oxide in exhaled air. Eur Respir J 1996;9: 26712680.
  • 34
    Lundberg JO, Weitzberg E, Nordvall SL, Kuylenstierna R, Lundberg JM, Alving K. Primarily nasal origin of exhaled nitric oxide and absence in Kartagener's syndrome. Eur Respir J 1994;7: 15011504.
  • 35
    Silkoff PE, Chatkin J, Qian W, Chakravorty S, Gutierrez C, Furlott H et al. Nasal nitric oxide: a comparison of measurement techniques. Am J Rhinol 1999;13: 169178.