Individuals from a large North American population were screened for the presence of the mutation in the α1 subunit of the voltage-dependent calcium channel (CACNA1S) that has recently been associated with malignant hyperthermia (MH). This Arg1086His mutation was screened for in 154 MH normal (MHN) individuals and 112 MH susceptible (MHS) individuals, who were diagnosed by the North American protocol of the in vitro contracture test. PCR and restriction enzyme analysis was used to test for the mutation. The Arg1086His mutation in the CACNA1S was not found in any of the MHN individuals. In contrast, two related individuals (grandfather and grandson, father and son of the MH proband) among the MHS group exhibited this mutation. However, a third MHS individual in the same family (granddaughter, cousin of the grandson) did not exhibit this mutation. These results indicate that this mutation may be associated with MH in this family. Genetic alterations in the CACNA1S associated with MH are present in approximately 1% of this North American MHS population.