According to cytogenetic analysis, about 50% of Turner individuals are 45,X. The remaining cases have a structurally abnormal X chromosome or are mosaics with a second cell line containing a normal or abnormal sex chromosome. In these mosaics, approximately 20% have a sex marker chromosome whose identity cannot usually be determined by classical cytogenetic methods, requiring the use of molecular techniques. Polymerase chain reaction (PCR), primed in situ labeling (PRINS), and fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) analyses were performed in 8 patients with Turner syndrome and 45,X mosaic karyotypes to determine the origin and structure of the marker chromosome in the second cell line. Our data showed that markers were Y-derived in 2 patients and X-derived in the remaining 6 patients. We were also able to determine the breakpoints in the two Y chromosomes. The use of cytogenetic and molecular techniques allowed us to establish unequivocally the origin, X or Y, of the marker chromosomes in the 8 patients with Turner phenotype. This study illustrates the power of resolution and utility of combined cytogenetic and molecular approaches in some clinical cases.