The present authors have previously described a consanguineous Pakistani family with fibular hypoplasia and complex brachydactyly (DuPan syndrome) inherited as an autosomal recessive trait. All affected individuals showed either reductions or absence of bones in the limbs, and appendicular bone dysmorphogenesis with unaffected axial bones. Obligate heterozygote parents were phenotypically normal. Mutations in the cartilage-derived morphogenetic protein 1 (CDMP1) gene have been reported in two acromesomelic chondrodysplasias (i.e. Hunter–Thompson type and Grebe type) which are phenotypically related to DuPan syndrome. CDMP1, a member of the transforming growth factor β super-family of secreted signalling molecules, has been reported to regulate limb patterning and distal bone growth. Therefore, the present authors examined genomic DNA from the family with DuPan syndrome for mutations in the CDMP1 gene. Affected individuals were homozygous for a missense mutation, T1322C, in the coding region of the CDMP1 gene. This mutation was not found in 44 control subjects of Pakistani origin. The T1322C change predicts a leu441pro substitution in the mature domain of the CDMP1 protein. This is likely to cause a conformational change in the CDMP1 protein that influences the expression of genes which are required for normal bone development. This finding extends the spectrum of phenotypes produced by defects in the CDMP1 gene.