• Cancer;
  • expression regulation;
  • HLA;
  • HLA-G;
  • immune inhibition;
  • pregnancy;
  • tolerance

Abstract:  In 1998, the first International Conference on human leukocyte antigen-G (HLA-G) was held in Paris. At that time, HLA-G was still a new HLA class I molecule, few aspects of its immunological functions were known, and its expression by tumors was just being described. In 1998, tools to properly study HLA-G were lacking, especially monoclonal antibodies, and three conclusions were drawn after the congress: (i) animal models were needed, (ii) the biology of HLA-G isoforms had to be confirmed, and (iii) HLA-G expression by tumors required clarification. Five years later, these three issues have been addressed. HLA-G is now gaining pace and is investigated for its immuno-inhibitory functions in the context of multiple pathologies. Eighty five oral presentations were given this year for more than 200 investigators working on HLA-G by speakers from over 20 countries. The success of the 3rd International Conference on HLA-G reflects the interest and tremendous work of the many research teams which, over the years, contributed to the publication of more than 500 peer-review articles. We summarize the key points that were presented and discussed during this meeting.