Cytokine, chemokine and secretory IgA levels in human milk in relation to atopic disease and IgA production in infants

Authors

  • Malin F. Böttcher,

    1. Department of Molecular and Clinical Medicine, Division of Paediatrics, and Clinical Research Center, Faculty of Health Sciences, Linköping University, Linköping,
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  • Maria C. Jenmalm,

    1. Department of Molecular and Clinical Medicine, Division of Paediatrics, and Clinical Research Center, Faculty of Health Sciences, Linköping University, Linköping,
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  • Bengt Björkstén

    1. Center for Allergy Research and Institute of Environmental Medicine, Karolinska Institute, Karolinska, Sweden
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Malin Fagerås Böttcher, KFC/Division of Pediatrics, Linköping University Hospital, S-581 85 Linköping, Sweden
Tel.: +46 13 22 35 65
Fax: +46 13 1 74 65
E-mail: MalFa@kfc.liu.se

Abstract

The relationship between breast-feeding, IgA production and development of atopic disease in children is a matter of controversy. Some of this controversy might be due to individual differences in the composition of breast milk. The aim of this study was to relate the levels of cytokines, chemokines and secretory (S)-IgA antibodies in breast milk to the development of atopic manifestation and salivary IgA production in infants. Cytokine, chemokine and SIgA levels, as measured with enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA), in colostrum and mature milk were analyzed in relation to the development of positive skin-prick tests (SPT), allergic symptoms and salivary IgA antibody production during the first 2 years of life in 53 infants. There was no association between levels of IL-4, -5, -6, -8, -10, -13, -16, IFN-γ, TGF-β1, -β2, RANTES, eotaxin or SIgA levels in the breast milk with either SPT-positivity, development of allergic symptoms or salivary IgA levels during the first 2 years of life in the infants. Thus, differences in the composition of cytokines, chemokines and SIgA in breast milk did not, to any major degree, affect the development of a positive SPT, atopic symptoms, nor salivary IgA antibody production during the first 2 years of life.

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