Benfield MR, Symons JM, Bynon S, Echkoff D, Herrin J, Harmon WE, Kohaut EC. Mycophenolate mofetil in pediatric transplantation. Pediatr Transplantation 1999: 3: 33–37. © Munksgaard, 1999 Abstract: The use of mycophenolate mofetil (MMF) in adult renal transplantation has been associated with significantly decreased incidence of acute rejection. However, limited data are available for children after renal transplantation. A total of 67 patients undergoing renal transplantation at the University of Alabama at Birmingham, AL, USA and Children’s Hospital of Boston, MA, USA were enrolled into the Cooperative Clinical Trials in Pediatric Transplantation randomized controlled trial of induction with OKT3® vs. i.v. cyclosporin A (CsA) at the time of transplantation. The first 31 patients entered were begun on azathioprine (AZA), 2 mg/kg on the first post-operative day. The subsequent 36 patients were begun on MMF, 1000 mg/m2/d. Other maintenance immunosuppression included oral CsA and Prednisone. Biopsy confirmation was obtained for all suspected rejection episodes. Glomerular filtration rate (GFR) was calculated using the Schwartz formula. Data were analyzed using Kaplan–Meier survival curves and compared using log-rank tests. At the time of analysis, 52 patients (mean age 10.1 ± 5 yr) had completed at least 12 months and 15 others had completed at least 6 months of follow-up post-transplantation. Of these, there were 39 male/28 female; 48 white/15 black/4 other; 49 living donor/18 cadaver donor. There were no significant differences in the incidence of rejection episodes, number of rejection episodes, the GFR at 6 and 12 months, allograft, or patient survival between patients receiving MMF vs. AZA. We could demonstrate no significant differences in these outcomes in based on sex, race or induction therapy, leading to the conclusion that pediatric patients treated under a consistent protocol in two institutions have no improvement in short-term allograft outcome with the addition of MMF therapy.