Abstract: Hematopoietic stem-cell transplantation (HSCT) has increasingly become an accepted treatment for many childhood diseases and disorders. Potential HSCT recipients can be children with hematological malignancies or solid tumors, as well as congenital and acquired disorders. In the past decade, the use of HSCT in the treatment of pediatric disorders has grown exponentially while advances in supportive care have improved survival rate, contributing to a rapidly growing population of transplant survivors. Although numerous similarities can be found between pediatric and adult long-term HSCT survivors, this article provides a brief overview of the pediatric patients, emphasizing the aspects of surveillance and late effects. Understanding the long-term complications that can occur after HSCT is important in determining the appropriate evaluations and medical treatment for the patient involved. The goal of this article is to assist caregivers in providing optimal care for long-term survivors of HSCT. The initial section of this work comprises the three major causes of late effects in HSCT. It will then encompass a system review of the different potential complications that are seen with HSCT.