Stimulation of photosynthesis in response to elevated carbon dioxide concentration [CO2] in the short-term (min) should be highly temperature dependent at high photon flux. However, it is unclear if long-term (days, weeks) adaptation to a given growth temperature alters the temperature-dependent stimulation of photosynthesis to [CO2]. In velveltleaf (Albutilon theophrasti), the response of photosynthesis, determined as CO2 assimilation, was measured over a range of internal CO2 concentrations at 7 short-term measurement (12, 16, 20, 24, 28, 32, 36°C) temperatures for each of 4 long-term growth (16, 20, 28 and 32°C) temperatures. In vivo estimates of VCmax, the maximum RuBP saturated rate of carboxylation, and Jmax, the light-saturated rate of potential electron transport, were determined from gas exchange measurements for each temperature combination. Overall, previous exposure to a given growth temperature adjusted the optimal temperatures of Jmax and VCmax with subsequently greater enhancement of photosynthesis at elevated [CO2] (i.e., a greater enhancement of photosynthesis at elevated [CO2] was observed at low measurement temperatures for A. theophrasti grown at low growth temperatures compared with higher growth temperatures, and vice versa for plants grown and measured at high temperatures). Previous biochemical based models used to predict the interaction between rising [CO2] and temperature on photosynthesis have generally assumed no growth temperature effect on carboxylation kinetics or no limitation by Jmax. In the current study, these models over predicted the temperature dependence of the photosynthetic response to elevated [CO2] at temperatures above 24°C. If these models are modified to include long-term adjustments of Jmax and VCmax to growth temperature, then greater agreement between observed and predicted values was obtained.