A possible role of photosynthetic apparatus during cold de-acclimation was studied in oilseed rape (Brassica napus var. oleifera). Plants of spring (Star) and winter (Górczañski) cultivars were cold acclimated at + 5°C, and de-acclimated during 4 weeks at combinations of + 12 and + 20°C operating in the light or/and dark, with a 12-h photoperiod. Evidence is presented that the photosynthetic apparatus may be involved in temperature perception during de-acclimation. De-acclimation was faster under a 20/12°C (day/night) treatment than under the reverse 12/20°C (day/night). De-acclimation rate was constant when the day temperature was constant, irrespective of the night temperature both under cold day temperature regimes (12/20, 12/12°C (day/night) and warm-day treatments (20/12, 20/20°C (day/night). The fast decrease in frost resistance observed under warm-day de-acclimation was always accompanied by an acceleration of elongation growth. In the spring cultivar, elongation growth increased starting from the second week of de-acclimation, regardless of temperature conditions. Once elongation growth had commenced during de-acclimation, it continued throughout the period necessary for re-acclimation to low temperature. Re-acclimation to the initial freezing tolerance level was only possible when plant elongation was reduced. In addition re-acclimation of the photosynthetic apparatus to low temperature was impossible in fast growing plants. A possible relationship between PSII, growth rate and frost resistance during cold acclimation and de-acclimation is discussed.