Solid organ transplantation has become an important therapeutic option for multiple chronic diseases. With the advent of newer and potent immunosuppressive regimens, graft survival has improved, but at the expense of an increased risk for the development of infections secondary to bacterial, fungal, viral and parasitic pathogens. Prevention of such infectious complications with effective, well tolerated, and cost-effective anti-microbials would be ideal to improve the outcome of transplanted patients. However, the emergence of multi-drug resistant pathogens, medication toxicity and drug-drug interactions need to be carefully evaluated. This review summarizes the most relevant data pertaining to our current understanding of infection prevention for solid organ transplant recipients. Specific recommendations are given for the prevention of each group of microorganisms and types of solid organ transplant ( Note).