• tuberculosis;
  • renal allograft;
  • endemic area


Immunosuppressed patients after renal transplantation are at increased risk of developing infective complications, including tuberculosis. We describe four renal transplant patients who presented with tuberculosis isolated to the renal allograft. The three patients with adequate follow-up presented with a febrile illness 12–26 months after the transplant. The mycobacterial infection was found in the graft nephrectomy specimen in three patients. One patient with renal allograft dysfunction had a percutaneous biopsy that showed tuberculosis. The latter patient recovered renal allograft function after anti-tuberculous therapy. None of the patients had evidence of tuberculosis elsewhere. We conclude that tuberculosis isolated to the renal allograft, especially in an endemic area, may be the cause of renal dysfunction, and appropriate therapy could lead to salvage of the graft.