Abstract: Previous studies have indicated that pulmonary infection with Burkholderia cepacia is associated with poor clinical outcome after lung transplantation in cystic fibrosis (CF). Many treatment centers consider B. cepacia infection an absolute contraindication to lung transplantation. However, the B. cepacia complex actually consists of several closely related bacterial species. Although each of these has been isolated from CF sputum culture, certain species are much more frequently recovered than others, and it is not yet clear whether all species have the same potential for virulence in CF. Additional study is needed to better define the relative risks associated with each species of the B. cepacia complex.