• antifungal prophylaxis;
  • fungal infection;
  • histoplasmosis;
  • immunosuppression;
  • transplant

Abstract: Questions have arisen regarding the risk of developing symptomatic Histoplasma capsulatum infection among patients who undergo transplant-related immunosuppression in areas endemic for histoplasmosis. Our medical center is located in a hyperendemic area for histoplasmosis, where three large outbreaks occurred since 1978. We undertook a retrospective chart review of 137 patients who received allogeneic bone marrow transplant and of 449 patients who received solid organ transplant from January 1994 to December 1996 in order to assess the incidence of active histoplasmosis. Charts were reviewed before and after transplantation for clinical outcomes, H. capsulatum serologies and antigen results, and microbiological and radiological results. After a mean follow-up duration exceeding 16 months, no patient was diagnosed with histoplasmosis. In the absence of an outbreak, histoplasmosis is a rare infection following the immunosuppression of allogeneic bone marrow or solid organ transplantation even in a hyperendemic area. Pre-transplant serologies or chest radiographs consistent with prior infection were not associated with post-transplant histoplasmosis.