Abstract: Infection with influenza viruses poses specific problems in adult and pediatric organ transplant recipients, including a higher rate of pulmonary and extra-pulmonary complications. Also, data suggest that influenza is associated with acute cellular rejection and chronic allograft dysfunction. The main strategy of influenza prevention has been influenza immunization in order to stimulate local and systemic antibodies. However, studies have shown that antibody response to inactivated influenza vaccine is decreased in all groups of organ transplant recipients. A live attenuated influenza virus vaccine is nearing approval in the United States. However, studies are needed in organ transplant recipients to determine whether the live attenuated influenza virus vaccine can enable these patients to mount a protective immune response and what degree of protection or amelioration of illness is provided by such vaccine. It is also important to verify the safety of this vaccine in organ transplant recipients because live virus may cause severe disease in these patients. Therefore, other modalities of prevention against influenza, such as chemoprophylaxis with antiviral drugs, should be considered in this patient population. The current review provides an overview of the incidence, clinical manifestations, and strategies for the prevention and management of influenza in organ transplant recipients.