Lifestyle-related risk factors for Parkinson's disease: a population-based study

Authors

  • M. Baldereschi,

    1. Institute of Neurosciences, ILSA Study, Italian National Research Council,
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  • A. Di Carlo,

    1. Institute of Neurosciences, ILSA Study, Italian National Research Council,
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  • P. Vanni,

    1. Department of Neurological and Psychiatric Sciences, University of Florence, and
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  • A. Ghetti,

    1. Health Area 10, Florence, Italy;
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  • P. Carbonin,

    1. Istituto di Medicina Interna e Geriatria, Università Cattolica del Sacro Cuore, Rome, Italy;
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  • L. Amaducci,

    1. Department of Neurological and Psychiatric Sciences, University of Florence, and
    2. Deceased
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  • D. Inzitari,

    1. Department of Neurological and Psychiatric Sciences, University of Florence, and
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  • for the Italian Longitudinal Study on Aging Working Group

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    • 5

      The ILSA Working Group: A. Di Carlo, M. Baldereschi, S. Maggi, Italian National Research Council, Italy; G. Scarlato, L. Candelise, E. Scarpini, University of Milano, Italy; P. Carbonin, Università Cattolica del Sacro Cuore, Roma, Italy; G. Farchi, MSc, E. Scafato, Istituto Superiore di Sanità, Roma, Italy; F. Grigoletto, Sc.D, E. Perissinotto, Sc.D, L. Battistin, M. Bressan, G. Enzi, G. Bortolan, Sc.D, University of Padova, Italy; C. Loeb, Italian National Research Council, Genova, Italy; C. Gandolfo, University of Genova, Italy; N. Canal, M. Franceschi, San Raffaele Institute, Milano, Italy; A. Ghetti, R. Vergassola, Health Area 10, Firenze, Italy; L. Amaducci, D. Inzitari, University of Firenze, Italy; S. Bonaiuto, F. Fini, A. Vesprini, G. Cruciani, INRCA Fermo, Italy; A. Capurso, P. Livrea, V. Lepore, University of Bari, Italy; L. Motta, G. Carnazzo, P. Bentivegna, University of Catania, Italy; F. Rengo, University of Napoli, Italy.


Marzia Baldereschi, Dip. Scienze Neurologiche, Collaborazioni Internazionali, ILSA/LADIS Projects, Viale Morgagni, 46, 50134 Firenze, Italy
Tel.: +39 055 4223341
Fax: +39 055 4223341
e-mail: baldereschi@area.fi.cnr.it

Abstract

Objectives –  To investigate the association of major lifestyle-related risk factors with the prevalent cases of Parkinson's disease (PD) identified by the Italian Longitudinal Study on Aging.

Methods –  A total of 5632 individuals randomly selected from the population registers of eight centers were screened for parkinsonism using both a questionnaire and a neurologic examination. Screened positives underwent a structured clinical work-up for the diagnosis of parkinsonism and parkinsonism subtypes.

Results –  We identified 113 prevalent cases of PD. Age, male gender, and pesticide-use license were significantly related to PD. Heavy smoking was inversely related to PD. Age (OR = 1.1; 95% CI, 1.06–1.15) and pesticide-use license (OR = 3.7; 95% CI, 1.6–8.6) kept their significant correlation with the disease in the multivariate analysis to adjust for all the variables under investigation. Multivariate analyses were made for men and women separately: pesticide exposure was positively associated with PD only in men.

Conclusions –  Pesticide exposure might represent a candidate for environmental factors involved in PD.

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