The Collaborative Longitudinal Personality Disorders Study: baseline Axis I/II and II/II diagnostic co-occurrence


Dr Thomas H. McGlashan, Yale Psychiatric Institute, 184 Liberty Street, PO Box 208038, New Haven, CT 06520, USA.


Objective: To describe baseline diagnostic co-occurrence in the Collaborative Longitudinal Personality Disorders Study.

Method: Six hundred and sixty-eight patients were reliably assessed with diagnostic interviews for DSM-IV Axis I and II disorders to create five groups: Schizotypal (STPD), Borderline (BPD), Avoidant (AVPD), Obsessive-Compulsive (OCPD) and Major Depressive Disorder (MDD) without personality disorder (PD).

Results: Mean number of Axis I lifetime diagnoses was 3.4; STPD and BPD groups had more diagnoses than AVPD, OCPD, and MDD groups. Significant Axis I co-occurrences emerged for Social Phobia/AVPD, PTSD/BPD and Substance Use/BPD. Mean number of co-occurring PDs was 1.4; STPD had more than BPD group which had more than AVPD and OCPD groups. Significant PD co-occurrence emerged for: STPD/ Paranoid and Schizoid PDs, BPD with Antisocial and Dependent PDs, and lower frequency for OCPD/Antisocial PD.

Conclusion: Diagnostic co-occurrences generally followed base rates, while significant departures resemble those of controlled literature.