Purpose: To evaluate the safety of superselective arterial embolization therapy in the lower gastrointestinal tract. The sequelae on normal enteric tissue in lower gastrointestinal arterial embolization were retrospectively reviewed.
Material and Methods: To control hemorrhage and tumor blood supply, 14 patients were treated by superselective transcatheter embolization at different levels of the colonic and small intestine vessels via the superior and inferior mesenteric arteries using microcoils and/or gelatin sponge. Normal enteric tissues in the embolized areas were analyzed for the occurrence of ischemic changes by clinical follow-up, colonoscopy, and surgery.
Results: Normal bowel function was preserved in 13 patients. In 1 patient treated with numerous gelatin sponge particles delivered from the proximal arcade of the superior mesenteric artery, significant muscular fibrosis occurred.
Conclusion: Superselective arterial embolization for lower gastrointestinal hemorrhage can be safely performed by minimizing the amount of embolic materials and delivering them as distally as possible.