• Breast cancer;
  • angiogenesis;
  • MR imaging;
  • intravascular contrast agent


Purpose:  To evaluate the feasibility of using dynamic contrast-enhanced MR imaging with a new intravascular contrast agent in grading human breast cancer.

Material and Methods:  23 patients with 27 breast tumors (21 carcinomas and 6 fibroadenomas) were examined with dynamic MR imaging after administration of Clariscan, an iron oxide nanoparticle with large T1 relaxivity and a long plasma half life. A 3D T1-weighted gradient echo sequence with an acquisition time of 60 s was repeated at regular intervals of 3–5 min before and up to 1 h after injection of 2 mg/kg b.w. of Clariscan. The endothelial transfer constant, Kps, which reflects overall vascular permeability, and the fractional plasma volume, fPV, were estimated from time-intensity curves acquired from three separate regions of interest (ROIs): whole tumor, a permeability hot spot, and a blood volume hot spot. Kps and fPV were compared to the results of histologic tumor grading (Scarff-Bloom-Richardson, SBR) and microvascular density, MVD.

Results:  A statistically significant correlation between the MR-derived Kps parameters and the SBR score was obtained for the whole tumor ROI (R = 0.70), and for the permeability hot spot ROIs (R = 0.67). A correlation between fPV and SBR was detected for the blood volume hot spot ROIs (R = 0.48). There was no statistically significant correlation between Kps or fPV with MVD.

Conclusion:  The results support the hypothesis that dynamic MR with the intravascular contrast agent Clariscan may be used for non-invasive tumor grading.