Central venous access is an important aspect of medical treatment. There are different designs of access devices for different purposes. In essence, they can be classified as short- and long-term devices. Insertion procedures vary for different devices. There is a risk for both acute and delayed complications. Radiology plays a central role both in placement and in device management. Image-guided insertion increases technical success and reduces the rate of acute complications. The diagnostic approach to long-term complications includes radiography, fluoroscopy, CT, and ultrasound. Treatment by interventional procedures is possible for a number of these conditions. These interventions increase device lifespan and reduce the number of necessary reinsertions.