Elevated levels of the calcium-binding protein S100A4 cause metastasis of benign rat mammary tumor cells. To investigate whether S100A4 plays an important role in the invasion and metastasis of gastric cancers, we examined the gene mutations in the coding regions and expression patterns of the S100A4 in gastric adenocarcinoma in Korea. Moderate to strong expression of S100A4 was found in 53 (68.8%) of the 77 gastric adenocarcinomas, whilst normal gastric epithelium either failed to stain or showed weak staining. Interestingly, S100A4 expression was more frequently observed in gastric cancer patients with advanced gastric cancer (p=0.039), positive lymph node metastasis (p=0.001), and peritoneal dissemination (p=0.022). No gene mutations were found in the analyzed genomic area in 77 gastric adenocarcinomas and 15 gastric cancer cell lines. We found one single nucleotide polymorphism without an amino acid change, A99G, in two cases. These data suggest that the overexpression of S100A4 may be closely related to the aggressiveness of gastric cancer in Korea.