SEARCH

SEARCH BY CITATION

REFERENCES

  • 1
    Banchereau J, Steinman RM. Dendritic cells and the control of immunity. Nature 1998;392: 24552.
  • 2
    Cella M, Jarrossay D, Facchetti F, Alebardi O, Nakajima H, Lanzavecchia A, Colonna M. Plasmacytoid monocytes migrate to inflamed lymph nodes and produce large amounts of type I interferon. Nat Med 1999;5: 91923.
  • 3
    Siegal FP, Kadowaki N, Shodell M, Fitzgerald-Bocarsly PA, Shah K, Ho S, Antonenko S, Liu YJ. The nature of the principal type 1 interferon-producing cells in human blood. Science 1999;284: 18357.
  • 4
    Sallusto F, Palermo B, Lenig D, Miettinen M, Matikainen S, Julkunen I, Forster R, Burgstahler R, Lipp M, Lanzavecchia A. Distinct patterns and kinetics of chemokine production regulate dendritic cell function. Eur J Immunol 1999;29: 161725.
  • 5
    Larsson M, Majeed M, Ernst JD, Magnusson KE, Stendahl O, Forsum U. Role of annexins in endocytosis of antigens in immature human dendritic cells. Immunology 1997;92: 50111.
  • 6
    Sallusto F, Cella M, Danieli C, Lanzavecchia A. Dendritic cells use macropinocytosis and the mannose receptor to concentrate antigen in the major histocompatibility class II compartment. Downregulation by cytokines and bacterial products. J Exp Med 1995;1820: 389400.
  • 7
    Steinman RM. Dendritic cells and the control of immunity: enhancing the efficiency of antigen presentation. Mount Sinai J Medicine 2000;68: 1606.
  • 8
    Hewson T, Lone N, Moore M, Howie S. Interactions of HIV-1 with antigen-presenting cells. Immunol Cell Biol 1999;77: 289303.
  • 9
    Tschachler E, Groh V, Popovic M, Mann DL, Konrad K, Safai B, Eron L, DiMarzo Veronese F, Wolff K, Stingl G. Epidermal Langerhans cells – a target for HTLV-III/LAV infection. J Invest Dermatol 1987;88: 2337.
  • 10
    Braathen LR, Ramirez G, Kunze RO, Mork C, Strand O. Latent infection of epidermal Langerhans cells in HIV-positive individuals. Res Virol 1991;142: 11921.
  • 11
    Niedecken H, Lutz G, Bauer R, Kreysel HW. Langerhans cell as primary target and vehicle for transmission of HIV. Lancet 1987;2: 51920.
  • 12
    Granelli-Piperno A, Delgado E, Finkel V, Paxton W, Steinman RM. Immature dendritic cells selectively replicate M-tropic HIV-1, while mature cells efficiently transmit both M- and T-tropic virus to T cells. J Virol 1998;72: 27337.
  • 13
    Granelli-Piperno A, Finkel V, Delgado E, Steinman RM. Virus replication begins in dendritic cells during the transmission of HIV-1 from mature dendritic cells to T cells. Curr Biol 1999;9: 219.
  • 14
    Blauvelt A, Asada H, Saville MW, Klaus-Kovtun V, Altman DJ, Yarchoan R, Katz SI. Productive infection of dendritic cells by HIV-1 and their ability to capture virus are mediated through separate pathways. J Clin Invest 1997;100: 204353.
  • 15
    Blauvelt A. The role of skin dendritic cells in the initiation of human immunodeficiency virus infection. Am J Med 1997;102: 1620.
  • 16
    Ayehunie S, Garcia-Zepeda EA, Hoxie JA, Horuk R, Kupper TS, Luster AD, Ruprecht RM. Human immunodeficiency virus-1 entry into purified blood dendritic cells through CC and CXC chemokine coreceptors. Blood 1997;90: 137986.
  • 17
    Canque B, Bakri Y, Camus S, Yagello M, Benjouad A, Gluckman JC. The susceptibility to X4 and R5 human immunodeficiency virus-1 strains of dendritic cells derived in vitro from CD34(+) hematopoietic progenitor cells is primarily determined by their maturation stage. Blood 1999;93: 386675.
  • 18
    Patterson S, Rae A, Hockey N, Gilmour J, Gotch F. Plasmacytoid dendritic cells are highly susceptible to human immunodeficiency virus type 1 infection and release infectious virus. J Virol 2001;75: 67103.
  • 19
    Donaghy H, Pozniak A, Gazzard B, Qazi N, Gilmour J, Gotch F, Patterson S. Loss of blood CD11c(+) myeloid and CD11c(-) plasmacytoid dendritic cells in patients with HIV-1 infection correlates with HIV-1 RNA virus load. Blood 2001;98: 25746.
  • 20
    Warren MK, Rose WL, Cone JL, Rice WG, Turpin JA. Differential infection of CD34+ cell-derived dendritic cells and monocytes with lymphocyte-tropic and monocyte-tropic HIV-1 strains. J Immunol 1997;158: 503542.
  • 21
    Tsunetsugu-Yokota Y, Akagawa K, Kimoto H, Suzuki K, Iwasaki M, Yasuda S, Hausser G, Hultgren C, Meyerhans A, Takemori T. Monocyte-derived cultured dendritic cells are susceptible to human immunodeficiency virus infection and transmit virus to resting T cells in the process of nominal antigen presentation. J Virol 1995;69: 45447.
  • 22
    Charbonnier AS, Verrier B, Jacquet C, Massacrier C, Fiers MM, Mallet F, Dezutter-Dambuyant C, Schmitt D. In vitro HIV1 infection of CD34+ progenitor-derived dendritic/Langerhans cells at different stages of their differentiation in the presence of GM-CSF/TNF alpha. Res Virol 1996;147: 8995.
  • 23
    Rubbert A, Combadiere C, Ostrowski M, Arthos J, Dybul M, Machado E, Cohn MA, Hoxie JA, Murphy PM, Fauci AS, Weissman D. Dendritic cells express multiple chemokine receptors used as coreceptors for HIV entry. J Immunol 1998;160: 393341.
  • 24
    Sallusto F, Mackay CR, Lanzavecchia A. The role of chemokine receptors in primary, effector, and memory immune responses. Annu Rev Immunol 2000;18: 593620.
  • 25
    Granelli-Piperno A, Moser B, Pope M, Chen D, Wei Y, Isdell F, O'Doherty U, Paxton W, Koup R, Mojsov S, Bhardwaj N, Clark-Lewis I, Baggiolini M, Steinman RM. Efficient interaction of HIV-1 with purified dendritic cells via multiple chemokine coreceptors. J Exp Med 1996;184: 24338.
  • 26
    Ignatius R, Wei Y, Beaulieu S, Gettie A, Steinman RM, Pope M, Mojsov S. The immunodeficiency virus coreceptor, Bonzo/STRL33/TYMSTR, is expressed by macaque and human skin- and blood-derived dendritic cells. AIDS Res Hum Retroviruses 2000;16: 10559.
  • 27
    Beaulieu S, Robbiani DF, Du X, Rodrigues E, Ignatius R, Wei Y, Ponath P, Young JW, Pope M, Steinman RM, Mojsov S. Expression of a functional eotaxin (CC chemokine ligand 11) receptor CCR3 by human dendritic cells. J Immunol 2002;169: 292536.
  • 28
    Pope M, Betjes MGH, Romani N, Hirmand H, Cameron PU, Hoffman L, Gezelter S, Schuler G, Steinman RM. Conjugates of dendritic cells and memory T lymphocytes from skin facilitate productive infection with HIV-1. Cell 1994;78: 38998.
  • 29
    Pope M, Gezelter S, Gallo N, Hoffman L, Steinman RM. Low levels of HIV-1 in cutaneous dendritic cells promote extensive viral replication upon binding to memory CD4+ T cells. J Exp Med 1995;182: 204556.
  • 30
    Lin CL, Suri RM, Rahdon RA, Austyn JM, Roake JA. Dendritic cell chemotaxis and transendothelial migration are induced by distinct chemokines and are regulated on maturation. Eur J Immunol 1998;28: 411422.
  • 31
    Dieu MC, Vanbervliet B, Vicari A, Bridon JM, Oldham E, Ait-Yahia S, Briere F, Zlotnik A, Lebecque S, Caux C. Selective recruitment of immature and mature dendritic cells by distinct chemokines expressed in different anatomic sites. J Exp Med 1998;188: 37386.
  • 32
    Zhu T, Mo H, Wang N, Nam DS, Cao Y, Koup RA, Ho DD. Genotypic and phenotypic characterization of HIV-1 in patients with primary infection. Science 1993;261: 117981.
  • 33
    Van't Wout AB, Kootstra NA, Mulder-Kampinga GA, Albrect-van Lent N, Scherpbier HJ, Veenstra J, Boer K, Coutinho RA, Miedema F, Schuitemaker H. Macrophage-tropic variants initiate human immunodeficency virus type 1 infection after sexual, parenteral, and vertical transmission. J Clin Invest 1994;94: 20607.
  • 34
    Reece JC, Handley A, Anstee J, Morrison W, Crowe+ SM, Cameron PU. HIV-1 selection by epidermal dendritic cells during transmission across human skin. J Exp Med 1998;187: 162331.
  • 35
    Veazey RS, Marx PA, Lackner AA. The mucosal immune system: primary target for HIV infection and AIDS. Trends Immunol 2001;22: 62633.
  • 36
    Meng G, Wei X, Wu X, Sellers MT, Decker JM, Moldoveanu Z, Orenstein JM, Graham MF, Kappes JC, Mestecky J, Shaw GM, Smith PD. Primary intestinal epithelial cells selectively transfer R5 HIV-1 to CCR5+ cells. Nat Med 2002;8: 1506.
  • 37
    McIlroy D, Autran B, Cheynier R, Wain-Hobson S, Clauvel JP, Oksenhendler E, Debre P, Hosmalin A. Infection frequency of dendritic cells and CD4+ T lymphocytes in spleens of human immunodeficiency virus-positive patients. J Virol 1995;69: 473745.
  • 38
    Haase AT. Pathogenesis of lentivirus infections. Nature 1986;322: 1306.
  • 39
    Cameron PU, Freudenthal PS, Barker JM, Gezelter S, Inaba K, Steinman RM. Dendritic cells exposed to human immunodeficiency virus type-1 transmit a vigorous cytopathic infection to CD4+ T cells. Science 1992;257: 3837.
  • 40
    Woods TC, Roberts BD, Butera ST, Folks TM. Loss of inducible virus in CD45RA naive cells after human immunodeficiency virus-1 entry accounts for preferential viral replication in CD45RO memory cells. Blood 1997;89: 163541.
  • 41
    Geijtenbeek TBH, Kwon DS, Torensma R, Van Vliet SJ, Van Duijnhoven GCF, Middel J, Cornelissen ILMHA, Nottet HSLM, KewalRamani VN, Littman DR, Figdor CG, Van Kooyk Y. DC-SIGN, a dendritic cell specific HIV-1 binding protein that enhances TRANS-infection of T cells. Cell 2000;100: 58797.
  • 42
    Geijtenbeek TB, Engering A, Van Kooyk Y. DC-SIGN, a C-type lectin on dendritic cells that unveils many aspects of dendritic cell biology. J Leukoc Biol 2002;71: 92131.
  • 43
    Geijtenbeek TBH, Krooshoop DJEB, Bleijs D, Van Vliet SJ, Van Duijnhoven GCF, Grabovsky V, Alon R, Figdor CG, Van Kooyk Y. DC-SIGN-ICAM-2 interaction mediates dendritic cell trafficking. Nat Immunol 2000;1: 3537.
  • 44
    Jameson B, Baribaud F, Pohlmann S, Ghavimi D, Mortari F, Doms RW, Iwasaki A. Expression of DC-SIGN by dendritic cells of intestinal and genital mucosae in humans and rhesus macaques. J Virol 2002;76: 186675.
  • 45
    Geijtenbeek TBH, Torensma R, Van Vliet SJ, Van Duijnhoven GCF, Adema GJ, Van Kooyk Y, Figdor CG. Identification of DC-SIGN, a novel dendritic cell-specific ICAM-3 receptor that supports primary immune responses. Cell 2000;100: 57585.
  • 46
    Kwon DS, Gregorio G, Bitton N, Hendrickson WA, Littman DR. DC-SIGN-mediated internalization of HIV is required for trans- enhancement of T cell infection. Immunity 2002;16: 13544.
  • 47
    Cameron PU, Forsum U, Teppler H, Granelli-Piperno A, Steinman RM. During HIV-1 infection most blood dendritic cells are not productively infected and can induce allogeneic CD4+ T cells clonal expansion. Clin Exp Immunol 1992;88: 22636.
  • 48
    Weissman D, Li Y, Ananworanich J, Zhou LJ, Adelsberger J, Tedder TF, Baseler M, Fauci AS. Three populations of cells with dendritic morphology exist in peripheral blood, only one of which is infectable with human immunodeficiency virus type 1. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 1995;92: 82630.
  • 49
    Wu L, Bashirova AA, Martin TD, Villamide L, Mehlhop E, Chertov AO, Unutmaz D, Pope M, Carrington M, KewalRamani VN. Rhesus macaque dendritic cells efficiently transmit primate lentiviruses independently of DC-SIGN. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 2002;99: 156873.
  • 50
    Turville S, Cameron P, Handley A, Lin A, Pöhlmann S, Doms RW, Cunnimgham A. Diversity of receptors binding HIV on dendritic cell subsets. Nat Immunol 2002;3: 97583.
  • 51
    Milone MC, Fitzgerald-Bocarsly P. The mannose receptor mediates induction of IFN-alpha in peripheral blood dendritic cells by enveloped RNA and DNA viruses. J Immunol 1998;161: 23919.
  • 52
    Frank I, Piatak M Jr, Stoessel H, Romani N, Bonnyay D, Lifson JD, Pope M. Infectious and whole inactivated simian immunodeficiency viruses interact similarly with primate dendritic cells (DCs): differential intracellular fate of virions in mature and immature DCs. J Virol 2002;76: 293651.
  • 53
    Spira AI, Marx PA, Patterson BK, Mahoney J, Koup RA, Wolinsky SM, Ho DD. Cellular targets of infection and route of viral dissemination following an intravaginal inoculation of SIV into rhesus macaques. J Exp Med 1996;183: 21525.
  • 54
    Miller CJ, Hu J. T cell-tropic simian immunodeficiency virus (SIV) and simian-human immunodeficiency viruses are readily transmitted by vaginal inoculation of rhesus macaques, and Langerhans' cells of the female genital tract are infected with SIV. J Infect Dis 1999;179 Suppl 3: S4137.
  • 55
    Stahl-Hennig C, Steinman RM, Tenner-Racz K, Pope M, Stolte N, Matz-Rensing K, Grobschupff G, Raschdorff B, Hunsmann G, Racz P. Rapid infection of oral mucosal-associated lymphoid tissue with simian immunodeficiency virus. Science 1999;285: 12615.
  • 56
    Hu J, Gardner MB, Miller CJ. Simian immunodeficiency virus rapidly penetrates the cervicovaginal mucosa after intravaginal inoculation and infects intraepithelial dendritic cells. J Virol 2000;74: 608795.
  • 57
    Zhang Z, Schuler T, Zupancic M, Wietgrefe S, Staskus KA, Reimann KA, Reinhart TA, Rogan M, Cavert W, Miller CJ, Veazey RS, Notermans D, Little S, Danner SA, Richman DD, Havlir D, Wong J, Jordan HL, Schacker TW, Racz P, Tenner-Racz K, Letvin NL, Wolinsky S, Haase AT. Sexual transmission and propagation of SIV and HIV in resting and activated CD4(+) T cells. Science 1999;286: 13537.
  • 58
    Reinhart TA, Rogan MJ, Viglianti GA, Rausch DM, Eiden LE, Haase AT. A new approach to investigating the relationship between productive infection and cytopathicity in vivo. Nat Med 1997;3: 21821.
  • 59
    Lore K, Sonnerborg A, Brostrom C, Goh LE, Perrin L, McDade H, Stellbrink HJ, Gazzard B, Weber R, Napolitano LA, Van Kooyk Y, Andersson J. Accumulation of DC-SIGN+CD40+ dendritic cells with reduced CD80 and CD86 expression in lymphoid tissue during acute HIV-1 infection. AIDS 2002;16: 68392.
  • 60
    Frankel SS, Tenner-Racz K, Racz P, Wenig BM, Hansen CH, Listinsky C, Heffner D, Nelson AM, Pope M, Steinman RM. Active replication of HIV-1 at the lymphoepithelial surface of the tonsil. Am J Pathol 1997;151: 8996.
  • 61
    Kalter DC, Greenhouse JJ, Orenstein JM, Schnittman SM, Gendelman HE, Meltzer MS. Epidermal Langerhans cells are not principal reservoirs of virus in HIV disease. J Immunol 1991;146: 3396404.
  • 62
    Macatonia SE, Lau R, Patterson S, Pinching AJ, Knight SC. Dendritic cell infection, depletion and dysfunction in HIV infected individuals. Immunology 1990;71: 3845.
  • 63
    Grassi F, Hosmalin A, McIlroy D, Calvez V, Debre P, Autran B. Depletion in blood CD11c-positive dendritic cells from HIV-infected patients. AIDS 1999;13: 75966.
  • 64
    Feldman S, Stein D, Amrute S, Denny T, Garcia Z, Kloser P, Sun Y, Megjugorac N, Fitzgerald-Bocarsly P. Decreased interferon-alpha production in HIV-infected patients correlates with numerical and functional deficiencies in circulating type 2 dendritic cell precursors. Clin Immunol 2001;101: 20110.
  • 65
    Pacanowski J, Kahi S, Baillet M, Lebon P, Deveau C, Goujard C, Meyer L, Oksenhendler E, Sinet M, Hosmalin A. Reduced blood CD123+ (lymphoid) and CD11c+ (myeloid) dendritic cell numbers in primary HIV-1 infection. Blood 2001;98: 301621.
  • 66
    Jones GJ, Watera C, Patterson S, Rutebemberwa A, Kaleebu P, Whitworth JA, Gotch FM, Gilmour JW. Comparative loss and maturation of peripheral blood dendritic cell subpopulations in African and non-African HIV-1-infected patients. AIDS 2001;15: 165763.
  • 67
    Chehimi J, Campbell DE, Azzoni L, Bacheller D, Papasavvas E, Jerandi G, Mounzer K, Kostman J, Trinchieri G, Montaner L. Persistent decreases in blood plasmacytoid dendritic cell number and function despite effective highly antiretroviral therapy and increased blood myeloid dendritic cells in HIV-infected individuals. J Immunol 2002;168: 4796801.
  • 68
    Soumelis V, Scott I, Gheyas F, Bouhour D, Cozon G, Cotte L, Huang L, Levy JA, Liu YJ. Depletion of circulating natural type 1 interferon-producing cells in HIV-infected AIDS patients. Blood 2001;98: 90612.
  • 69
    Spinillo A, Tenti P, Zappatore R, De Seta F, Silini E, Guaschino S. Langerhans' cell counts and cervical intraepithelial neoplasia in women with human immunodeficiency virus infection. Gynecol Oncol 1993;48: 2103.
  • 70
    Gompels M, Patterson S, Roberts MS, Macatonia SE, Pinching AJ, Knight SC. Increase in dendritic cell numbers, their function and the proportion uninfected during AZT therapy. Clin Exp Immunol 1998;112: 34753.
  • 71
    Walker CM, Moody DJ, Stites DP, Levy JA. CD8+ lymphocytes can control HIV infection in vitro by suppressing virus replication. Science 1986;234: 15636.
  • 72
    Tsubota H, Lord CI, Watkins C, Morimoto C, Letvin NI. A cytotoxic T lymphocyte inhibits acquired immunodeficiency syndrome virus replication in peripheral blood lymphocytes. J Exp Med 1989;169: 142134.
  • 73
    Koup RA, Safrit JT, Yunzhen C, Andrews CA, McLeod G, Borkowsky W, Farthing C, Ho DD. Temporal association of cellular immune responses with the initial control of viremia in primary human immunodeficiency virus type 1 syndrome. J Virol 1994;68: 46505.
  • 74
    Borrow P, Lewicki H, Hanh BH, Shaw GM, Oldstone MB. Virus-specific CD8+ cytotoxic T-lymphocyte activity associated with control of viremia in primary human immunodeficiency virus type 1 infection. J Virol 1994;68: 610310.
  • 75
    Musey L, Hughes J, Schacker T, Shea T, Corey L, McElrath J. Cytotoxic-T cell responses, viral load, and disease progression in early human immunodeficiency virus type 1 infection. N Engl J Med 1997;337: 126774.
  • 76
    Schmitz JE, Kuroda MJ, Santra S, Sasseville VG, Simon MA, Lifton MA, Racz P, Tenner-Racz K, Dalesandro M, Scallon BJ, Ghrayeb J, Forman MA, Montefiori DC, Rieber EP, Letvin NL, Reimann KA. Control of viremia in simian immunodeficiency virus infection by CD8(+) lymphocytes. Science 1999;283: 85760.
  • 77
    Oxenius A, Price DA, Easterbrook PJ, O'Callaghan CA, Kelleher AD, Whelan JA, Sontag G, Sewell AK, Phillips RE. Early highly active antiretroviral therapy for acute HIV-1 infection preserves immune function of CD8+ and CD4+ T lymphocytes. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 2000;97: 33827.
  • 78
    Rosenberg ES, Billingsley JM, Caliendo AM, Boswell SL, Sax P, Kalams SA, Walker BD. Vigorous HIV-1-specific CD4+ T cell responses associated with control of viremia. Science 1997;278: 144750.
  • 79
    Johnson RP, Desrosiers RC. Protective immunity induced by live attenuated simian immunodeficiency virus. Curr Opin Immunol 1998;10: 43643.
  • 80
    Ferbas J. Perspectives on the role of CD8+ cell suppressor factors and cytotoxic T lymphocytes during HIV infection. AIDS Res Hum Retroviruses 1998;14 Suppl 2: S15360.
  • 81
    Rowland-Jones S, Pinheiro S, Kaul R. New insights into host factors in HIV-1 pathogenesis. Cell 2001;104: 4736.
  • 82
    Douek DC, Brenchley JM, Betts MR, Ambrozak DR, Hill BJ, Okamoto Y, Casazza JP, Kuruppu J, Kunstman K, Wolinsky S, Grossman Z, Dybul M, Oxenius A, Price DA, Connors M, Koup RA. HIV preferentially infects HIV-specific CD4+ T cells. Nature 2002;417: 958.
  • 83
    Tortorella D, Gewurz BE, Furman MH, Schust DJ, Ploegh HL. Viral subversion of the immune system. Annu Rev Immunol 2000;18: 861926.
  • 84
    Ridge JP, Di Rosa F, Matzinger P. A conditioned dendritic cell can be a temporal bridge between a CD4+ T helper and a T-killer cell. Nature 1998;393: 4748.
  • 85
    Riley JL, Schlienger K, Blair PJ, Carreno B, Craighead N, Kim D, Carroll RG, June CH. Modulation of susceptibility to HIV-1 infection by the cytotoxic T lymphocyte antigen 4 costimulatory molecule. J Exp Med 2000;191: 198798.
  • 86
    Vanham G, Penne L, Devalck J, Kestens L, Colebunders R, Bosmans E, Thielemans K, Ceuppens JL. Decreased CD40 ligand induction in CD4 T cells and dysregulated IL-12 production during HIV infection. Clin Exp Immunol 1999;117: 33542.
  • 87
    Weissman D, Li Y, Orenstein JM, Fauci AS. Both a precursor and a mature population of dendritic cells can bind HIV: however, only the mature population that expressed CD80 can pass infection to unstimulated CD4+ T cells. J Immunol 1995;155: 41117.
  • 88
    Knight SC, Patterson S, Macatonia SE. Stimulatory and suppressive effects of infection of dendritic cells with HIV-1. Immunol Lett 1991;30: 213.
  • 89
    Macatonia SE, Patterson S, Knight SC. Suppression of immune responses by dendritic cells infected with HIV. Immunology 1989;67: 2859.
  • 90
    Macatonia SE, Gompels M, Pinching AJ, Patterson S, Knight SC. Antigen-presentation by macrophages but not by dendritic cells in human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection. Immunology 1992;75: 57681.
  • 91
    Knight SC, Macatonia SE, Patterson S. Infection of dendritic cells with HIV-1: virus load regulates stimulation and suppression of T-cell activity. Res Virol 1993;144: 7580.
  • 92
    Fidler SJ, Dorrell L, Ball S, Lombardi G, Weber J, Hawrylowicz C, Rees AD. An early antigen-presenting cell defect in HIV-1-infected patients correlates with CD4 dependency in human T-cell clones. Immunology 1996;89: 4653.
  • 93
    Fan Z, Huang XL, Zheng L, Wilson C, Borowski L, Liebmann J, Gupta P, Margolick J, Rinaldo C. Cultured blood dendritic cells retain HIV-1 antigen-presenting capacity for memory CTL during progressive HIV-1 infection. J Immunol 1997;159: 497382.
  • 94
    Sapp M, Engelmeyer J, Larsson M, Granelli-Piperno A, Steinman RM, Bhardwaj N. Dendritic cells generated from blood monocytes of HIV-1 patients are not infected and act as competent antigen presenting cells eliciting potent T cell responses. Immunol Lett 1999;66: 1218.
  • 95
    Canque B, Rosenzwajg M, Camus S, Yagello M, Bonnet ML, Guigon M, Gluckman JC. The effect of in vitro human immunodeficiency virus infection on dendritic-cell differentiation and function. Blood 1996;88: 421528.
  • 96
    Ghanekar S, Zheng L, Logar A, Navratil J, Borowski L, Gupta P, Rinaldo C. Cytokine expression by human peripheral blood dendritic cells stimulated in vitro with HIV-1 and herpes simplex virus. J Immunol 1996;157: 402836.
  • 97
    Lore K, Sonnerborg A, Olsson J, Patterson BK, Fehniger TE, Perbeck L, Andersson J. HIV-1 exposed dendritic cells show increased pro-inflammatory cytokine production but reduced IL-1ra following lipopolysaccharide stimulation. AIDS 1999;13: 201321.
  • 98
    Giovanna Quaranta M, Tritarelli E, Giordani L, Viora M. HIV-1 Nef induces dendritic cell differentiation: a possible mechanism of uninfected CD4+ T cell activation. Exp Cell Res 2002;275: 24354.
  • 99
    Fanales-Belasio E, Moretti S, Nappi F, Barillari G, Micheletti F, Cafaro A, Ensoli B. Native HIV-1 Tat protein targets monocyte-derived dendritic cells and enhances their maturation, function, and antigen-specific T cell responses. J Immunol 2002;168: 197206.
  • 100
    Andrieu M, Chasssin D, Desoutter JF, Bouchaert I, Baillet M, Hanau D, Guillet JG, Hosmalin A. Downregulation of major histocompatibility class I on human dendritic cells by HIV nef impairs antigen presentation to HIV-specific CD8+ T lymphocytes. AIDS Res Hum Retroviruses 2001;17: 136570.
  • 101
    Cramer LA, Frelinger JA. Dendritic cells transduced with HIV Nef express normal levels of HLA-A and HLA-B class I molecules. J Acquir Immune Defic Syndr 2001;27: 41725.
  • 102
    Sol-Foulon N, Moris A, Nobile C, Boccaccio C, Engering A, Abastado JP, Heard JM, Van Kooyk Y, Schwartz O. HIV-1 Nef-induced upregulation of DC-SIGN in dendritic cells promotes lymphocyte clustering and viral spread. Immunity 2002;16: 14555.
  • 103
    Rasola A, Gramaglia D, Boccaccio C, Comoglio PM. Apoptosis enhancement by the HIV-1 Nef protein. J Immunol 2001;166: 818.
  • 104
    Jacotot E, Ravagnan L, Loeffler M, Ferri KF, Vieira HL, Zamzami N, Costantini P, Druillennec S, Hoebeke J, Briand JP, Irinopoulou T, Daugas E, Susin SA, Cointe D, Xie ZH, Reed JC, Roques BP, Kroemer G. The HIV-1 viral protein R induces apoptosis via a direct effect on the mitochondrial permeability transition pore. J Exp Med 2000;191: 3346.
  • 105
    Conti L, Rainaldi G, Matarrese P, Varano B, Rivabene R, Columba S, Sato A, Belardelli F, Malorni W, Gessani S. The HIV-1 vpr protein acts as a negative regulator of apoptosis in a human lymphoblastoid T cell line: possible implications for the pathogenesis of AIDS. J Exp Med 1998;187: 40313.
  • 106
    Patel CA, Mukhtar M, Pomerantz RJ. Human immunodeficiency virus type 1 Vpr induces apoptosis in human neuronal cells. J Virol 2000;74: 971726.
  • 107
    Larsson M, Fonteneau JF, Bhardwaj N. Dendritic cells resurrect antigens from dead cells. Trends Immunol 2001;22: 1418.
  • 108
    Spetz AL, Patterson BK, Lore K, Andersson J, Holmgren L. Functional gene transfer of HIV DNA by an HIV receptor-independent mechanism. J Immunol 1999;163: 73642.
  • 109
    Larsson M, Fonteneau J, Lirvall M, Haslett P, Lifson J, Bhardwaj N. Activation of HIV-1 specific CD4+ and CD8+ T cells by human dendritic cells: roles for cross-presentation and non-infectious HIV-1 virus. AIDS 2002: 131929.
  • 110
    Zhao XQ, Huang XL, Gupta P, Borowski L, Fan Z, Watkins SC, Thomas EK, Rinaldo CR Jr. Induction of anti-human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) CD8(+) and CD4(+) T-cell reactivity by dendritic cells loaded with HIV-1 X4-infected apoptotic cells. J Virol 2002;76: 300714.
  • 111
    Zocchi MR, Poggi A, Rubartelli A. The RGD-containing domain of exogenous HIV-1 Tat inhibits the engulfment of apoptotic bodies by dendritic cells. AIDS 1997;11: 122735.
  • 112
    Caldwell RL, Egan BS, Shepherd VL. HIV-1 Tat represses transcription from the mannose receptor promoter. J Immunol 2000;165: 703541.
  • 113
    Piatak M, Saag MS, Yang LC, Clark SJ, Kappes JC, Luk KC, Hahn BH, Shaw GM, Lifson JD. High levels of HIV-1 in plasma during all stages of infection determined by competitive PCR. Science 1993;259: 174954.
  • 114
    Rossio JL, Esser MT, Suryanarayana K, Schneider DK, Bess JW Jr, Vasquez GM, Wiltrout TA, Chertova E, Grimes MK, Sattentau Q, Arthur LO, Henderson LE, Lifson JD. Inactivation of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 infectivity with preservation of conformational and functional integrity of virion surface proteins. J Virol 1998;72: 79928001.
  • 115
    Lu W, Andrieu JM. In vitro human immunodeficiency virus eradication by autologous CD8(+) T cells expanded with inactivated-virus-pulsed dendritic cells. J Virol 2001;75: 894956.
  • 116
    Buseyne F, Gall SL, Boccaccio C, Abastado JP, Lifson JD, Arthur LO, Riviere Y, Heard JM, Schwartz O. MHC-I-restricted presentation of HIV-1 virion antigens without viral replication. Nat Med 2001;7: 3449.
  • 117
    Chassin D, Andrieu M, Cohen W, Culmann-Penciolelli B, Ostankovitch M, Hanau D, Guillet JG. Dendritic cells transfected with the nef genes of HIV-1 primary isolates specificallyactivate cytotoxic T lymphocytes from sero-positive subjects. Eur J Immunol 1999;29: 196202.
  • 118
    Wilson CC, Olson WC, Tuting T, Rinaldo CR, Lotze MT, Storkus WJ. HIV-1-specific CTL responses primed in vitro by blood-derived dendritic cells and Th1-biasing cytokines. J Immunol 1999;162: 30708.
  • 119
    Zheng L, Huang XL, Fan Z, Borowski L, Wilson CC, Rinaldo CR Jr. Delivery of liposome-encapsulated HIV type 1 proteins to human dendritic cells for stimulation of HIV type 1-specific memory cytotoxic T lymphocyte responses. AIDS Res Hum Retroviruses 1999;15: 101120.
  • 120
    Hosmalin A, Andrieu M, Loing E, Desoutter JF, Hanau D, Gras-Masse H, Dautry-Varsat A, Guillet JG. Lipopeptide presentation pathway in dendritic cells. Immunol Lett 2001;79: 97100.
  • 121
    Fan Z, Huang XL, Borowski L, Mellors JW, Rinaldo CR Jr. Restoration of anti-human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) responses in CD8+ T cells from late-stage patients on prolonged antiretroviral therapy by stimulation in vitro with HIV-1 protein-loaded dendritic cells. J Virol 2001;75: 44139.
  • 122
    Granelli-Piperno A, Zhong L, Haslett P, Jacobson J, Steinman RM. Dendritic cells, infected with VSV-pseudotyped HIV-1, present antigens to CD4+ and CD8+T cells from HIV-1 infected individuals. J Immunol 2000;165: 66206.
  • 123
    Gruber A, Kan-Mitchell J, Kuhen KL, Mukai T, Wong-Staal F. Dendritic cells transduced by multiply deleted HIV-1 vectors exhibit normal phenotypes and functions and elicit an HIV-specific cytotoxic T-lymphocyte response in vitro. Blood 2000;96: 132733.
  • 124
    Engelmayer J, Larsson M, Lee M, Cox WI, Steinman RM, Bhardwaj N. Mature dendritic cells infected with canarypox virus elicit strong anti-human immunodeficiency virus CD8+ and CD4+ T cell responses from chronically infected individuals. J Virol 2001;75: 214253.
  • 125
    Ostrowski MA, Justement SJ, Ehler L, Mizell SB, Lui S, Mican J, Walker BD, Thomas EK, Seder R, Fauci AS. The role of CD4(+) T cell help and CD40 ligand in the in vitro expansion of HIV-1-specific memory cytotoxic CD8(+) T cell responses. J Immunol 2000;165: 613341.
  • 126
    Nair SK, Heiser A, Boczkowski D, Majumdar A, Naoe M, Lebkowski JS, Vieweg J, Gilboa E. Induction of cytotoxic T cell responses and tumor immunity against unrelated tumors using telomerase reverse transcriptase RNA transfected dendritic cells. Nat Med 2000;6: 10117.
  • 127
    Boczkowski D, Nair SK, Snyder D, Gilboa E. Dendritic cells pulsed with RNA are potent antigen-presenting cells in vitro and in vivo. J Exp Med 1996;184: 46572.
  • 128
    Dhodapkar MV, Bhardwaj N. Active immunization of humans with dendritic cells. J Clin Immunol 2000;20: 16774.
  • 129
    Thurner B, Haendle I, Röder C, Dieckmann D, Keikavoussi P, Jonuleit H, Bender A, Maczek C, Schreiner D, Von Den Driesch P, Bröcker EB, Steinman RM, Enk A, Kämpgen E, Schuler G. Vaccination with Mage-3A1 peptide-pulsed mature, monocyte-derived dendritic cells expands specific cytotoxic T cells and induces regression of some metastases in advanced stage IV melanoma. J Exp Med 1999;190: 166978.