The aim of this study was to evaluate clinically, histologically, and histometrically the use of autogenous bone combined with porous hydroxyapatite (Interpore 200®) as a grafting material for maxillary sinus augmentation procedures. In 4 adult male rhesus monkeys (Macaca mulatta) the 1st, 2nd and 3rd maxillary molars on one side of the jaws were extracted. After a healing period of 3 months. maxillary sinus augmentation procedures were performed in each monkey, and the sinuses were grafted with autogenous bone from the monkeys' tibia mixed in a 3:1 ratio with porous hydroxyapatite. At the same time. 2 pure titanium plasma-sprayed IMZB cylinder implants were immediately placed into the augmented sinuses (i.e. simultaneous implants-loaded group). After 4 months, 2 additional similar implants were placed into the previously augmented sinuses (i.e. delayed implants-loaded group). Four months later, the abutment connection was performed and all 4 implants were loaded with a gold-alloy bridge for 6 months (i.e. until sacrifice of the animals). The contralateral side of each monkey received similar treatment with the exception that the extractions were performed 7 months after those in the opposite side and that the implants were not loaded. Thus, 2 additional study groups (i.e. simultaneous implants unloaded group and delayed implants unloaded group) were obtained. Clinically, all loaded implants were stable at the day of sacrifice. Histologically, the grafted sinuses exhibited a significant amount of new bone formation. The porous hydroxyapatite granules appeared integrated with the newly formed bone. Histometric analyses revealed that delayed implant placement resulted in a greater amount of direct mineralized bone-to-implant contact in the augmented area than the simultaneous implant placement. Furthermore, the percentage of direct mineralized bone-to-implant contact was far more significant in the residual bone than in the augmented area. It was concluded that the autogenous bone/porous hydroxyapatite graft combination enhanced bone formation and mineralized bone-to-implant contact in the augmented sinuses and that the delayed implant placement may be favorable for sinus augmentation procedures.