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Keywords:

  • adults;
  • diabetes mellitus;
  • epidemiology;
  • glycosylated hemoglobin;
  • logistic models;
  • periodontal diseases;
  • type 2 diabetes mellitus;
  • United States

Abstract

Objective: We investigated the association between glycemic control of type 2 diabetes mellitus (type 2 DM) and severe periodontal disease in the US adult population ages 45 years and older.

Methods: Data on 4343 persons ages 45–90 years from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Study III were analyzed using weighted multivariable logistic regression. Severe periodontal disease was defined as 2 + sites with 6 + mm loss of attachment and at least one site with probing pocket depth of 5 + mm. Individuals with fasting plasma glucose > 126 mg/dL were classified as having diabetes; those with poorly controlled diabetes (PCDM) had glycosylated hemoglobin > 9% and those with better-controlled diabetes (BCDM) had glycosylated hemoglobin ≤ 9%. Additional variables evaluated in multivariable modeling included age, ethnicity, education, gender, smoking status, and other factors derived from the interview, medical and dental examination, and laboratory assays.

Results: Individuals with PCDM had a significantly higher prevalence of severe periodontitis than those without diabetes (odds ratio = 2.90; 95% CI: 1.40, 6.03), after controlling for age, education, smoking status, and calculus. For the BCDM subjects, there was a tendency for a higher prevalence of severe periodontitis (odds ratio = 1.56; 95% CI: 0.90, 2.68).

Conclusion: These results provide population-based evidence to support an association between poorly controlled type 2 diabetes mellitus and severe periodontitis.