Validity and ethics of the human 4-h patch test as an alternative method to assess acute skin irritation potential
Article first published online: 20 DEC 2001
Volume 45, Issue 1, pages 1–12, July 2001
How to Cite
Robinson, M. K., McFadden, J. P. and Basketter, D. A. (2001), Validity and ethics of the human 4-h patch test as an alternative method to assess acute skin irritation potential. Contact Dermatitis, 45: 1–12. doi: 10.1034/j.1600-0536.2001.045001001.x
- Issue published online: 20 DEC 2001
- Article first published online: 20 DEC 2001
- Accepted for publication 23 January 2001
- 1EEC. Annex I to Commision Directive 91/325/EEC of 1st March 1991 adapting to technical progress for the twelth time Council Directive 67/548/EEC on the approximation of the laws, regulations and administrative provision relating to the classification, packaging and labeling of dangerous substances.Off J Eur Comm1991: L180: 34.
- 2OECD guideline for testing of chemicals. 1992: pp. 1–6. 404.
- 3Methods for the study of irritation and toxicity of substances applied topically to the skin and mucous membranes.J Pharm Exp Therap1944: 82: 377–390., , .
- 4Animal, human, and in vitro test methods for predicting skin irritation. In: Marzulli F N, Mailbach H I (eds): Dermatotoxicology Methods.Taylor & Francis: Washington, DC, 1998: 89–113., , .
- 5EEC. Annex to Commission Directive 92/69/EEC of 31 July 1992 adapting to technical progress for the seventeenth time Council Directive 67/548/EEC on the approximation of laws, regulations and administrative provisions relating to the classification, packaging and labelling of dangerous substances.Off J Eur Comm L841992: 36: 1.
- 6Department of Transportation. Method of testing corrosion to the skin. 1991; Title 49, Appendix A Code of Federal Regulations.
- 10EEC. Council Directive 93/35/EEC of 14 June 1993 amending for the 6th time Directive 76/768/EEC on the approximation of the laws of the Member States relating to cosmetic products.Off J Eur Comm1993: L15: 32.
- 12Transcutaneous electrical resistance: Application in predicting skin corrosives. In: Elsner P, Maibach H I (eds): Irritant dermatitis: new clinical and experimental aspects.Basel: S. Karger AF, 1995: 243–255.& .
- 13Dermal corrosion, the CORROSITEX® system: A DOT accepted method to predict corrosivity potential of test materials. In: Rougier A, Goldberg A M, Maibach H I (eds): In vitro skin toxicology.New York: Mary Ann Liebert, 1994: 37–45., , .
- 14A prevalidation study on in vitro skin corrosivity tesing. The report and recommendations of ECVAM workshop 6.ATLA-Altern Lab Anim1995: 23: 219–255., , , , , , , , , et al.
- 16Alternative methods for skin irritation testing: the current status. ECVAM Skin Irritation Task Force Report 1.ATLA Altern Lab Anim1998: 26: 195–211., , , , .
- 22Prevalidation of in vitro tests for acute skin irritation. In: Clark D G, Lisansky S G, Macmillan R, (eds):Alternatives to Animal Testing. (II).Proceedings of the Second International Scientific Conference Organised by the European Cosmetic Industry.Newbury, U.K.: CPL Press, 1999: 228–231., , , , .
- 34Toxicology of contact dermatitis: allergy, irritancy, and urticaria.Chichester, UK: John Wiley & Sons., , , .
- 36The ECVAM prevalidation study on the use of EpiDerm for skin corrosivity testing.ATLA Altern Lab Anim2000: 28: 371–401., , , , , , , , , .
- 38ECVAM. Statement on the application of the EpidermTM human skin model for skin corrosivity testing.ATLA-Altern Lab Anim2000: 28: 365–366.
- 39Corrositex®: An in vitro test method for assessing dermal corrosivity potential of chemicals.1999URL:http://iccvam.niehs.nih.gov/corprep.htm., , , , , , , , .
- 48The validation of alternative methods for toxicity testing. In: van Zutphen L F M, Balls M (eds): Animal alternatives, welfare and ethics..Elsevier: msterdam, 1997: 1091–1098., , , .
- 54On dichlorethylsulphide (mustard gas) II. Variations in susceptibility of the skin to dichlorethylsulphide.J Pharm Exp Therap1919: 12: 291–301., , .
- 57An improved procedure for conducting lactic acid stinging tests on facial skin.J Soc Cosmet Chem1996: 47: 1–11.& .
- 58Asian skin “more prone” to burning, stinging, redness from H&BA products.F-D-C Reports: The Rose Sheet1998.
- 60Skin problems caused by cosmetics and quasidrugs: Report by six university hospitals to Ministry of Health and Welfare.Skin Research (Hifu)1986: 28: 80–85., , , , , .