SEARCH

SEARCH BY CITATION

References

  • 1
    EEC. Annex I to Commision Directive 91/325/EEC of 1st March 1991 adapting to technical progress for the twelth time Council Directive 67/548/EEC on the approximation of the laws, regulations and administrative provision relating to the classification, packaging and labeling of dangerous substances.Off J Eur Comm1991: L180: 34.
  • 2
    OECD guideline for testing of chemicals. 1992: pp. 16. 404.
  • 3
    Draize J H, Woodard G, Calvery H O. Methods for the study of irritation and toxicity of substances applied topically to the skin and mucous membranes.J Pharm Exp Therap1944: 82: 377390.
  • 4
    Patil S M, Patrick E, Maibach H I. Animal, human, and in vitro test methods for predicting skin irritation. In: Marzulli F N, Mailbach H I (eds): Dermatotoxicology Methods.Taylor & Francis: Washington, DC, 1998: 89113.
  • 5
    EEC. Annex to Commission Directive 92/69/EEC of 31 July 1992 adapting to technical progress for the seventeenth time Council Directive 67/548/EEC on the approximation of laws, regulations and administrative provisions relating to the classification, packaging and labelling of dangerous substances.Off J Eur Comm L841992: 36: 1.
  • 6
    Department of Transportation. Method of testing corrosion to the skin. 1991; Title 49, Appendix A Code of Federal Regulations.
  • 7
    Phillips L, Steinberg M, Maibach H I, Akers W A. A comparison of rabbit and human skin response to certain irritants.Toxicol Appl Pharmacol1972: 21: 369382.
  • 8
    Nixon G A, Tyson C A, Wertz W C. Interspecies comparisons of skin irritancy.Toxicol Appl Pharmacol1975: 31: 481490.
  • 9
    Campbell R L & Bruce R D. Comparative dermatotoxicology (I) Direct comparison of rabbit and human primary skin irritation responses to isopropylmyristate.Toxicol Appl Pharmacol1981: 59: 555563.
  • 10
    EEC. Council Directive 93/35/EEC of 14 June 1993 amending for the 6th time Directive 76/768/EEC on the approximation of the laws of the Member States relating to cosmetic products.Off J Eur Comm1993: L15: 32.
  • 11
    Perkins M A, Osborne R, Johnson G R. Development of an in vitro method for skin corrosion testing.Fundam Appl Toxicol1996: 31: 918.DOI: 10.1006/faat.1996.0071
  • 12
    Lewis R W & Basketter D A. Transcutaneous electrical resistance: Application in predicting skin corrosives. In: Elsner P, Maibach H I (eds): Irritant dermatitis: new clinical and experimental aspects.Basel: S. Karger AF, 1995: 243255.
  • 13
    Gordon V C, Harvell J D, Maibach H I. Dermal corrosion, the CORROSITEX® system: A DOT accepted method to predict corrosivity potential of test materials. In: Rougier A, Goldberg A M, Maibach H I (eds): In vitro skin toxicology.New York: Mary Ann Liebert, 1994: 3745.
  • 14
    Botham P A, Chamberlain M, Barratt M D, Curren R D, Esdaile D J, Gardner J R, Gordon V C, Hildebrand B, Lewis R W, Liebsch Met al. A prevalidation study on in vitro skin corrosivity tesing. The report and recommendations of ECVAM workshop 6.ATLA-Altern Lab Anim1995: 23: 219255.
  • 15
    Fentem J H, Archer G E B, Balls M, Botham P A, Curren R D, Earl L K, Esdaile D J, Holzhütter H G, Liebsch M. The ECVAM international validation study on in vitro tests for skin corrosivity. 2. Results and evaluation by the management team.Toxicol In Vitro1998: 12: 483524.DOI: 10.1016/s0887-2333(98)00019-8
  • 16
    Botham P A, Earl L K, Fentem J H, Roguet R, Van De Sandt J J M. Alternative methods for skin irritation testing: the current status. ECVAM Skin Irritation Task Force Report 1.ATLA Altern Lab Anim1998: 26: 195211.
  • 17
    Boelsma E, Tanojo H, Bodde H E, Ponec M. Assessment of the potential irritancy of oleic acid on human skin: Evaluation in vitro and in vivo.Toxicol In Vitro1996: 10: 729742.DOI: 10.1016/s0887-2333(96)00053-7
  • 18
    Augustin C, Collombel C, Damour O. Use of dermal equivalent and skin equivalent models for identifying phototoxic compounds in vitro.Photodermatol Photoimmunol Ph1997: 13: 2736.
  • 19
    Augustin C, Collombel C, Damour O. Use of dermal equivalent and skin equivalent models for in vitro cutaneous irritation testing of cosmetic products: Comparison with in vivo human data.J Toxicol Cutan Ocular Toxicol1998: 17: 517.
  • 20
    Perkins M A, Osborne R, Rana F R, Ghassemi A, Robinson M K. Comparison of in vitro and in vivo human skin responses to consumer products and ingredients with a range of irritancy potential.Toxicol Sci1999: 48: 218229.DOI: 10.1093/toxsci/48.2.218
  • 21
    De Brugerolle de Fraissinette A, Picarles V, Chibout S, Kolopp M, Medina J, Burtin P, Ebelin M E, Osborne S, Mayer F K, Spake A, Rosdy M, De Wever B, Ettlin R A, Cordier A. Predictivity of an in vitro model for acute and chronic skin irritation (SkinEthic) applied to the testing of topical vehicles.Cell Biol Toxicol1999: 15: 121135.
  • 22
    Fentem J H, Botham P A, Earl L K, Roguet R, Van De Sandt J J M. Prevalidation of in vitro tests for acute skin irritation. In: Clark D G, Lisansky S G, Macmillan R, (eds):Alternatives to Animal Testing. (II).Proceedings of the Second International Scientific Conference Organised by the European Cosmetic Industry.Newbury, U.K.: CPL Press, 1999: 228231.
  • 23
    Basketter D A, Whittle E, Griffiths H A, York M. The identification and classification of skin irritation hazard by a human patch test.Food Chem Toxicol1994: 32: 769775.
  • 24
    York M, Griffiths H A, Whittle E, Basketter D A. Evaluation of a human patch test for the identification and classification of skin irritation potential.Contact Dermatitis1996: 34: 204212.
  • 25
    Basketter D A, Chamberlain M, Griffiths H A, Rowson M, Whittle E, York M. The classification of skin irritants by human patch test.Food Chem Toxicol1997: 35: 845852.DOI: 10.1016/s0278-6915(97)00053-7
  • 26
    Griffiths H A, Wilhelm K P, Robinson M K, Wang X M, McFadden J, York M, Basketter D A. Interlaboratory evaluation of a human patch test for the identification of skin irritation potential/hazard.Food Chem Toxicol1997: 35: 255260.DOI: 10.1016/s0278-6915(96)00115-9
  • 27
    Robinson M K, Perkins M A, Basketter D A. Application of a 4-h human patch test method for comparative and investigative assessment of skin irritation.Contact Dermatitis1998: 38: 194202.
  • 28
    Robinson M K, Whittle E, Basketter D A. A two-center study of the development of acute irritation responses to fatty acids.Am J Contact Dermatitis1999: 10: 136145.
  • 29
    Basketter D A, Griffiths H A, Wang X M, Wilhelm K P, McFadden J P. Individual, ethnic and seasonal variability in irritant susceptibility of skin: The implications for a predictive human patch test.Contact Dermatitis1996: 35: 208213.
  • 30
    Basketter D, Blaikie L, Reynolds F. The impact of atopic status on a predictive human test of skin irritation potential.Contact Dermatitis1996: 35: 3339.
  • 31
    Judge M R, Griffiths H A, Basketter D A, White I R, Rycroft R J G, McFadden J P. Variation in response of human skin to irritant challenge.Contact Dermatitis1996: 34: 115117.
  • 32
    McFadden J P, Wakelin S H, Basketter D A. Acute irritation thresholds in subjects with Type I-Type VI skin.Contact Dermatitis1998: 38: 147149.
  • 33
    Robinson M K. Racial differences in acute and cumulative skin irritation responses between Caucasian and Asian populations.Contact Dermatitis2000: 42: 134143.DOI: 10.1034/j.1600-0536.2000.042003134.x
  • 34
    Basketter D, Gerberick F, Kimber I, Willis C. Toxicology of contact dermatitis: allergy, irritancy, and urticaria.Chichester, UK: John Wiley & Sons.
  • 35
    Basketter D A, Whittle E, Chamberlain M. Identification of irritation and corrosion hazards to skin: An alternative strategy to animal testing.Food Chem Toxicol1994: 32: 539542.
  • 36
    Liebsch M, Traue D, Barrabas C, Spielmann H, Uphill P, Wilkins S, Wiemann C, Kaufmann T, Remmele M, Holzhütter H G. The ECVAM prevalidation study on the use of EpiDerm for skin corrosivity testing.ATLA Altern Lab Anim2000: 28: 371401.
  • 37
    Balls M & Fentem J H. The validation and acceptance of alternatives to animal testing.Toxicol In Vitro1999: 13: 837846.DOI: 10.1016/s0887-2333(99)00067-3
  • 38
    ECVAM. Statement on the application of the EpidermTM human skin model for skin corrosivity testing.ATLA-Altern Lab Anim2000: 28: 365366.
  • 39
    Scala R, Fentem J H, Chen J, Derelanko M J, Green S, Harbell J, Kohrman K A, Sauder D N, Stegeman J. Corrositex®: An in vitro test method for assessing dermal corrosivity potential of chemicals.1999URL:http://iccvam.niehs.nih.gov/corprep.htm.
  • 40
    Osborne R & Perkins M A. An approach for development of alternative test methods based on mechanisms of skin irritation.Food Chem Toxicol1994: 32: 133142.
  • 41
    Bernhofer L P, Barkovic S, Appa Y, Martin K M. IL-1a and IL-1ra secretion from epidermal equivalents and the prediction of the irritation potential of mild soap and surfactant-based consumer products.Toxicol In Vitro1999: 13: 231239.DOI: 10.1016/s0887-2333(98)00088-5
  • 42
    Green B G. Regional and individual differences in cutaneous sensitivity to chemical irritants: Capsaicin and menthol.J Toxicol Cutan Ocular Toxicol1996: 15: 277295.
  • 43
    Chassany O & Duracinsky M. Ethics and clinical trials.Fundam Clin Pharmacol1999: 13: 437444.
  • 44
    Roggeband R, Scailteur V, Basketter D A. Human volunteer studies; a consumer products company view.Human Exp Toxicol1999: 18: 591593.
  • 45
    Mehta C R & Patel N R. A network algorithm for performing Fisher exact test in R X C contingency-tables.J Am Statis Assoc1983: 78: 427434.
  • 46
    Lee C H & Maibach H I. The sodium lauryl sulfate model: An overview.Contact Dermatitis1995: 33: 17.
  • 47
    Sugar M, Schnetz E, Fartasch M. Does sodium lauryl sulfate concentration vary with time?Contact Dermatitis1999: 40: 146149.
  • 48
    Bruner L H, Carr G J, Chamberlain M, Curren R D. The validation of alternative methods for toxicity testing. In: van Zutphen L F M, Balls M (eds): Animal alternatives, welfare and ethics..Elsevier: msterdam, 1997: 10911098.
  • 49
    Frosch P J & Kligman A M. The soap chamber test.J Am Acad Dermatol1979: 1: 3541.
  • 50
    Agner T & Serup J. Seasonal variation of skin resistance to irritants.Br J Dermatol1989: 121: 323328.
  • 51
    Nassif A, Chan S C, Storrs F J, Hanifin J M. Abnormal skin irritancy in atopic dermatitis and in atopy without dermatitis.Arch Dermatol1994: 130: 14021407.
  • 52
    Klas P A, Corey G, Storrs F J, Chan S C, Hanifin J M. Allergic and irritant patch test reactions and atopic disease.Contact Dermatitis1996: 34: 121124.
  • 53
    Robinson M K. Population differences in skin structure and physiology and the susceptibility to irritant and allergic contact dermatitis: implications for skin safety testing and risk assessment.Contact Dermatitis1999: 41: 6579.
  • 54
    Marshall E K, Lynch V, Smith H W. On dichlorethylsulphide (mustard gas) II. Variations in susceptibility of the skin to dichlorethylsulphide.J Pharm Exp Therap1919: 12: 291301.
  • 55
    Weigand D A & Gaylor J R. Irritant reaction in Negro and Caucasian skin.South Med J1974: 67: 548551.
  • 56
    Wedig J H & Maibach H I. Percutaneous penetration of dipyrithione in man: Effect of skin color (race).J Am Acad Dermatol1981: 5: 433438.
  • 57
    Christensen M & Kligman A M. An improved procedure for conducting lactic acid stinging tests on facial skin.J Soc Cosmet Chem1996: 47: 111.
  • 58
    Asian skin “more prone” to burning, stinging, redness from H&BA products.F-D-C Reports: The Rose Sheet1998.
  • 59
    Rapaport M J. Patch testing in Japanese subjects.Contact Dermatitis1984: 11: 9397.
  • 60
    Ishihara M, Takase Y, Hayakawa R, Nishikawa T, Niimura M, Tokuda Y. Skin problems caused by cosmetics and quasidrugs: Report by six university hospitals to Ministry of Health and Welfare.Skin Research (Hifu)1986: 28: 8085.
  • 61
    Tadaki T, Watanabe M, Kumasaka K, Tanita Y, Kato T, Tagami H, Horii I, Yokoi T, Nakayama Y, Kligman A M. The effect of topical tretinoin on the photodamaged skin of the Japanese.Tohoku J Exp Med1993: 169: 131139.
  • 62
    Walker A P, Basketter D A, Baverel M, Diembeck W, Matthies W, Mougin D, Paye M, Rothlisberger R, Dupuis J. Test guidelines for assessment of skin compatibility of cosmetic finished products in man.Food Chem Toxicol1996: 34: 651660.DOI: 10.1016/0278-6915(96)00029-4
  • 63
    Walker A P, Basketter D A, Baverel M, Diembeck W, Matthies W, Mougin D, Rothlisberger R, Coroama M. Test guidelines for the assessment of skin tolerance of potentially irritant cosmetic ingredients in man.Food Chem Toxicol1997: 35: 10991106.DOI: 10.1016/s0278-6915(97)00106-3
  • 64
    Robinson M K, Stotts J, Danneman P J, Nusair T L, Bay P H. A risk assessment process for allergic contact sensitization.Food Chem Toxicol1989: 27: 479489.
  • 65
    Gerberick G F & Robinson M K. A skin sensitization risk assessment approach for evaluation of new ingredients and products.Am J Contact Dermatitis2000: 11: 6573.
  • 66
    Frosch P J & Kligman A M. The chamber-scarification test for irritancy.Contact Dermatitis1976: 2: 314324.
  • 67
    Berger R S & Bowman J P. A reappraisal of the 21-day cumulative irritation test in man.J Toxicol-Cutan Ocul Toxicol1982: 1: 109115.
  • 68
    Lee C H & Maibach H I. Study of cumulative irritant contact dermatitis in man utilizing open application on subclinically irritated skin.Contact Dermatitis1994: 30: 271275.
  • 69
    Andersen K E. Reproducibility of the chamber scarification test.Contact Dermatitis1996: 34: 181184.
  • 70
    Wigger-Alberti W, Hinnen U, Elsner P. Predictive testing of metalworking fluids: A comparison of 2 cumulative human irritation models and correlation with epidemiological data.Contact Dermatitis1997: 36: 1420.