Background: Pleomorphic fibroma is a benign fibroblastic tumor characterized by pleomorphic, hyperchromatic cells or giant multinucleated cells embedded in a collagenous stroma. These cytologic features may lead to an incorrect diagnosis of malignancy. Most cases reported in the literature are located on trunk or extremities; the presentation as a subungual mass is rare.
Methods: We report an unusual case of a subungual pleomorphic fibroma in 66-year-old woman. Clinical information was obtained. Histologic examination and immunohistochemical studies were performed.
Results: A 66-year-old woman presented with a longstanding (40 years), subungual mass that deformed the nail of the left middle finger. Microscopic examination revealed a paucicellular tumor composed of hyperchromatic spindled, pleomorphic, floret-like giant cells embedded in haphazardly arranged collagen bundles in the dermis. No mitotic figures were seen. The tumor cells were vimentin-positive but did not stain with antibodies to S-100, cytokeratin, smooth muscle actin, factor XIIIa or CD34 negative. The diagnosis of a pleomorphic fibroma was made. Follow-up shows no evidence of tumor, 36 months after excision.
Conclusion: Pleomorphic fibroma of the subungual region is an unusual cutaneous tumor with histologic features that may cause confusion with true sarcomas. This is only the second case reported of a subungual pleomorphic fibroma. Pleomorphic fibroma should be considered in the differential diagnosis of pleomorphic subungual tumors.