Type 1 T regulatory cells

Authors

  • Maria Grazia Roncarolo,

    Corresponding author
    1. San Raffaele Telethon Institute of Gene Therapy (HSR-TIGET), San Raffaele Scientific Institute, Milan, Italy
      Correspondence to: Maria Grazia Roncarolo
      HSR-TIGET
      San Raffaele Scientific Institute
      Via Olgettina 58
      Milan
      Italy 20132
      Fax: 39 02 2643 4668
      e-mail: m.roncarolo@hsr.it
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  • Rosa Bacchetta,

    1. San Raffaele Telethon Institute of Gene Therapy (HSR-TIGET), San Raffaele Scientific Institute, Milan, Italy
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  • Claudio Bordignon,

    1. San Raffaele Telethon Institute of Gene Therapy (HSR-TIGET), San Raffaele Scientific Institute, Milan, Italy
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  • Satwant Narula,

    1. Schering-Plough Research Institute, Kenilworth, New Jersey, USA
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  • Megan K. Levings

    1. San Raffaele Telethon Institute of Gene Therapy (HSR-TIGET), San Raffaele Scientific Institute, Milan, Italy
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Correspondence to: Maria Grazia Roncarolo
HSR-TIGET
San Raffaele Scientific Institute
Via Olgettina 58
Milan
Italy 20132
Fax: 39 02 2643 4668
e-mail: m.roncarolo@hsr.it

Abstract

Summary: Suppression by T regulatory (Tr) cells is essential for induction of tolerance. Many types of Tr cells have been described in a number of systems, and their biology has been the subject of intensive investigation. Although many aspects of the mechanisms by which these cells exert their effects remain to be elucidated, it is well established that Tr cells suppress immune responses via cell-to-cell interactions and/or the production of interleukin (IL)-10 and transforming growth factor (TGF)-β. Type-1 T regulatory (Tr1) cells are defined by their ability to produce high levels of IL-10 and TGF-β. Tr1 cells specific for a variety of antigens arise in vivo, but may also differentiate from naive CD4+ T cells in the presence of IL-10 in vitro. Tr1 cells have a low proliferative capacity, which can be overcome by IL-15. Tr1 cells suppress naive and memory T helper type 1 or 2 responses via production of IL-10 and TGF-β. Further characterisation of Tr1 cells at the molecular level will define their mechanisms of action and clarify their relationship with other subsets of Tr cells. The use of Tr1 cells to identify novel targets for the development of new therapeutic agents, and as a cellular therapy to modulate peripheral tolerance, can be foreseen.

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