Summary: Over the past 20 years the role of the actin cytoskeleton in the formation of the immunological synapse and in T-cell activation has been the subject of intense scrutiny. T-cell receptor (TCR) signaling leads to tyrosine phosphorylation of numerous adapter proteins whose function is to relay signals to downstream components of the TCR signaling pathway and, in particular, to molecules implicated in remodeling the actin cytoskeleton. Here, we discuss how signals from the TCR converge on two key regulators of the actin cytoskeleton, Ena/vasodilator-stimulated phosphoproteins (VASPs) and the actin-related protein (ARP2/3) complex. We also discuss the implications of TCR signaling in the process of T-cell anergy with particular emphasis on the actin remodeling and molecules involved in the control of T-cell proliferation.