1Final report of the proceedings of the working party at the 8th International Meeting on Wilson disease and Menkes disease, Leipzig/Germany, April 16–18, 2002.
Diagnosis and phenotypic classification of Wilson disease1
Version of Record online: 7 MAY 2003
Volume 23, Issue 3, pages 139–142, June 2003
How to Cite
Ferenci, P., Caca, K., Loudianos, G., Mieli-Vergani, G., Tanner, S., Sternlieb, I., Schilsky, M., Cox, D. and Berr, F. (2003), Diagnosis and phenotypic classification of Wilson disease. Liver International, 23: 139–142. doi: 10.1034/j.1600-0676.2003.00824.x
2This meeting was organized under the auspices of the European Association for the Study of the Liver (EASL) and was financially supported by the European Commission (High-level Scientific Conference No. HPCF-CT-2000-00327) and the Austrian Society of Gastroenterology and Hepatology (O¨GGH).
- Issue online: 7 MAY 2003
- Version of Record online: 7 MAY 2003
- Received 23 December 2002, accepted 24 February 2003
Wilson disease is an inherited autosomal recessive disorder of hepatic copper metabolism leading to copper accumulation in hepatocytes and in extrahepatic organs such as the brain and the cornea. Originally Wilson disease was described as a neurodegerative disorder associated with cirrhosis of the liver. Later, Wilson disease was observed in children and adolescents presenting with acute or chronic liver disease without any neurologic symptoms. While diagnosis of neurologic Wilson disease is straightforward, it may be quite difficult in non-neurologic cases. Up to now, no single diagnostic test can exclude or confirm Wilson disease with 100% certainty. In 1993, the gene responsible for Wilson disease was cloned and localized on chromosome 13q14.3 (MIM277900) (1, 2). The Wilson disease gene ATP7B encodes a P-type ATPase. More than 200 disease causing mutations of this gene have been described so far (3). Most of these mutations occur in single families, only a few are more frequent (like H1069Q, 3400delC and 2299insC in Caucasian (4–6) or R778L in Japanese (7), Chinese and Korean patients). Studies of phenotype-genotype relations are hampered by the lack of standard diagnostic criteria and phenotypic classifications. To overcome this problem, a working party discussed these problems in depth at the 8th International Meeting on Wilson disease and Menkes disease in Leipzig/Germany (April 16–18, 2001)2. After the meeting, a preliminary draft of a consensus report was mailed to all active participants and their comments were incorporated in the final text.