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I conducted an experiment with gray-tailed voles, Microtus canicaudus, to test the hypothesis proposed by Charnov and Finerty that populations of voles comprised of female kin groups would grow more rapidly and reach higher densities more quickly than populations in which female kin groups were disrupted. The experiment was conducted in 0.2-ha semi-natural enclosures planted with mixed grasses. In four enclosures, females were unmanipulated (control) and in four enclosures all newly caught females were removed from their natal enclosures and replaced with females of comparable age from another enclosure, such that juvenile females did not settle near their siblings or parents (treatment). I found no significant differences in survival, reproduction, juvenile recruitment, population growth rates, or population size between control and treatment populations. The only difference was the time to sexual maturation for young females, which was 3.1 weeks for control enclosures compared with 4.2 weeks for treatment enclosures. I could not measure reproductive success for individual females, but my results did not support the hypothesis that the presence or absence of kin groups resulted in any biologically meaningful population-level effects. Female voles that have nesting territories adjacent to relatives may accrue some individual benefits, but these benefits are unlikely to contribute to population regulation in gray-tailed voles.