Diet-dependent body morphology and ontogenetic reaction norms in Eurasian perch


  • Joakim Hjelm,

  • Richard Svanbäck,

  • Pär Byström,

  • Lennart Persson,

  • Eva Wahlström

J. Hjelm, R. Svanbäck, P. Byström, L. Persson and E. Wahlström, Animal Ecology, Dept of Ecology and Environmental Science, Umeå Univ., SE-901 87 Umeå, Sweden ( (present addresses: RS: Dept of Limnology, Evolutionary Biology Centre, Uppsala Univ., Norbyvägen 20, SE-752 36 Uppsala, Sweden; PB: Dept of Aquaculture, Swedish Agricultural Univ., SE-901 87 Umeå Sweden).


Individual morphology and performance are directly or indirectly under the influence of variation in resource levels. To study the effects of different resource conditions and their effects on morphology and ontogenetic reaction norms in young-of-the-year (YOY) perch (Perca fluviatilis), we used three different approaches. First, we examined the morphological trajectories over early ontogeny in relation to lake-specific resources in a field study. Second, one lake that lacked perch recruitment was stocked with perch eggs from a control lake in a whole-lake experiment to study ontogenetic reaction norms. Third, we compared the development of YOY perch in the three lakes that mainly inhabited the littoral zone with YOY perch experimentally confined to enclosures in the pelagic zone of the lakes.
Overall body morphology of the YOY perch changed both as a function of size and as a function of diet. As perch increased in size they developed a deeper body morphology corresponding to an increased proportion of benthic macroinvertebrates in their diet. In pelagic enclosures where perch were constrained to feed mainly on zooplankton they had a more fusiform body morphology than perch in the lakes that fed on a mixture of zooplankton and macroinvertebrates. Similarly, the ontogenetic reaction norm of perch was related to the diet and lake-specific zooplankton levels in the whole-lake experiment.
In the pelagic enclosures, perch with high growth rates had a more fusiform body morphology than slow-growing perch, whereas the opposite was found in the lakes, where perch included more macroinvertebrates in their diets. Perch in lakes with a higher proportion of macroinvertebrates in the diet also had deeper body morphology. The opposite morphology – growth rate relationship found between perch in the pelagic versus those using the whole lake suggest a morphological trade-off between foraging on zooplankton and foraging on macroinvertebrates. Our results suggest that YOY perch show different ontogenetic reaction norms as a function of lake-specific resource levels, which may allow YOY recruitment to later stages. Our results further suggest that diet-related changes in morphology are a rapid process.