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The high diversity of mutualisms has probably limited the development of a general theory about their evolution and their stability. Here we review conflicts of interests occurring in the 13 known nursery pollination systems, where pollinators reproduce within the inflorescence they pollinate. We found three main conflicts of interest between mutualists that correspond to the following evolutionary questions: 1) Why do plants not kill their pollinators’ larvae? 2) Why do pollinators visit deceptive flowers? and 3) Why do pollinators pollinate? We show that the reproductive system of the plant is strongly correlated not only with the set of conflicts of interests that actually occur but also with the proximal resolution of these conflicts. In many cases the evolutionary stability of nursery pollination mutualisms relies on the avoidance of intra-specific competition among pollinator larvae. This stabilizing factor could perhaps also explain the absence of overexploitation in other mutualisms.