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The flux of emerging aquatic insects from streams can provide a significant energy subsidy to riparian web-building spiders. However, despite the high temporality of aquatic insect emergence, the effects of such aquatic insect dynamics on spider distribution are poorly understood. To examine the relationship, the aquatic insect flux from a headwater stream in a northern Japanese deciduous forest was experimentally manipulated by using a greenhouse-type covering, during May to July. Under natural conditions, the aquatic and terrestrial insect abundances dramatically decreased and increased from May through July, respectively. The experimental reduction of aquatic insect flux depressed the density of horizontal orb weavers (Tetragnathidae) in both May and June, but not in July when aquatic insects were scarce, indicating a temporal limitation on spider distribution by aquatic insect flux. In contrast, the densities of both vertical orb weavers (Araneidae) and sheet weavers (Linyphiidae) were unaffected by the manipulation throughout the study period. These various responses, differing among months or spider guilds, may be attributed to the degree of specialization for aquatic prey in the spiders and their mobility in response to aquatic insect flux. The experimental results provided direct evidence that the temporal dynamics of aquatic insect flux, as well as spider characteristics, were primary factors determining the distributional patterns of riparian web-building spiders.