Background: Calcifying odontogenic cyst (COC) is an uncommon odontogenic lesion with few studies describing its immunohistochemical profile and proliferative activity reported in the literature.
Methods: Clinical and histological features and immunohistochemical expression of cytokeratins, Mel-CAM (CD146), bcl-2, PCNA and ki-67, in 10 cases of COC were studied.
Results: All 10 cases affected the maxilla, eight intraosseous and two peripheral. Five central cases were cystic and three were cystic associated with odontoma, and the two extraosseous showed solid histological pattern; immunohistochemistry was positive for cytokeratins 8, 14, 19, AE1/AE3 and 34βE12 and bcl-2 in all cases, and Mel-CAM in six cases. Proliferative activity was greater in the epithelium of central cystic COC in relation to COC associated with odontoma and peripheral lesions.
Conclusion: Calcifying odontogenic cysts showed odontogenic cytokeratin profile and bcl-2 and Mel-CAM expression indicate that these proteins may be involved in the development of COC. There were no recurrences after surgery, irrespective of their proliferative activity.