Oxidant stress is believed to be enhanced in patients with diabetes mellitus, which may lead to endothelial dysfunction and the development of atherosclerosis. In diabetes, hyperglycemia drives non-enzymatic glycation and oxidation of proteins and lipids which enhances the formation of advanced glycation end products (AGEs), which may be involved in the pathogenesis of diabetic vascular disease. The macrovascular complications of diabetes seem to be due to enhanced cellular oxidant stress by the interaction of AGEs with their receptor. It would be worthwhile to devise methods to reduce this oxidant stress. In alloxan-induced diabetic rats lipid peroxidation products were increased, while levels of nitric oxide glutathione peroxidase and superoxide dismutase were reduced. Melatonin restored these biochemical abnormalities to normalcy independent of hyperglycemia. This model can be used to study the role of oxidant stress in the development of macrovascular complications in diabetes mellitus.