• 1
    Halliwell B. Effect of diet on cancer development: is oxidative DNA damage a biomarker? Free Radical Biol Med 2002; 32: 968974.
  • 2
    Kasai H. Analysis of a form of oxidative DNA damage, 8-hydroxy-2′-deoxyguanosine, as a marker of cellular oxidative stress during carcinogenesis. Mutat Res 1997; 387: 146163.
  • 3
    Rodriguez H, Jurado J, Laval J, Dizdaroglu M. Comparison of the levels of 8-hydroxyguanine in DNA as measured by gas chromatography mass spectrometry following hydrolysis of DNA by Escherichia coli Fpg protein or formic acid. Nucleic Acids Res 2000; 28: 7599.
  • 4
    Anderson RA. Nutritional role of chromium in glucose and lipid metabolism of humans. In: Metal Ions in Biology and Medicine. ColleryP, ed., John Libbey, London, 1990; pp. 315319.
  • 5
    Snow ET. A possible roll for chromium(III) in genotoxicity. Environ Health Perspect 1991; 92: 7581.
  • 6
    Singh J, Carlisle DL, Pritchard DE, Paterno SR. Chromium-induced genotoxicity and apoptosis. Oncol Rep 1998; 5: 13071318.
  • 7
    Tsou TC, Chen CL, Liu TY, Yang JL. Induction of 8-hydroxydeoxygunosine in DNA by chromium(III) plus hydrogen peroxide and its prevention by scavengers. Carcinogenesis 1996; 17: 103108.
  • 8
    Chen KC, Chahill DS, Kasai S, Nishimura S, Loeb LA. 8-hydroxydeoxyhguanosine, an abundant form of oxidative DNA damage, causes G [RIGHTWARDS ARROW] T and A [RIGHTWARDS ARROW] C substitution. J Biol Chem 1996; 267: 166172.
  • 9
    Manchester LC, Poeggeler B, Alvares FL, Ogden GB, Reiter RJ. Melatonin immunoreactivity in the photosynthetic prokaryote, Rhodospirillum rubrum: implications for an ancient antioxidant system. Cell Mol Biol Res 1995; 41: 391395.
  • 10
    Reiter RJ, Tan DX, Manchester LC, Calvo JR. Antioxidative capacity of melatonin. In: Handbook of Antioxidants, 2nd edn. CadenasE, PackerL eds, Marcel Dekker, NY, 2002; pp. 565613.
  • 11
    Tan DX, Chen LD, Poeggeler B, Manchester LC, Reiter RJ. Melatonin: a potent, endogenous hydroxyl radical scavenger. Endocr J 1993; 1: 5760.
  • 12
    Reiter RJ, Melchiorri D, Sewernyk E et al. A review of the evidence supporting melatonin's role as an antioxidant. J Pineal Res 1995; 18: 111.
  • 13
    Reiter RJ, Tang L, Garcia JJ, Munoz-Hoyos A. Pharmacological actions of melatonin in oxygen radical patho-physiology. Life Sci 1997; 60: 22552271.
  • 14
    Reiter RJ, Tan DX, Kim SJ, Qi W. Melatonin as a pharmacological agent against oxidative damage to lipids and DNA. Proc West Pharmacol Soc 1998; 41: 229236.
  • 15
    Qi W, Reiter RJ, Tan DX, Manchester LC, Siu AS, Garcia JJ. Increased levels of oxidatively damaged DNA induced by chromium(III) and H2O2: protection by melatonin and related molecules. J Pineal Res 2000; 29: 5461.
  • 16
    Burkhardt S, Reiter RJ, Tan DX, Hardeland R, Cabrera J, Karbownik M. DNA oxidatively damaged by chromium(III) and H2O2 is protected by antioxidants melatonin N1-acetyl-N2-formyl-5-methoxykynuramine, resveratrol, and uric acid. Int J Biochem Cell Biol 2001; 33: 775783.
  • 17
    Tan DX, Manchester LC, Reiter RJ, Qi WB, Karbownik M, Calvo JR. Significance of melatonin in antioxidative defense system: reactions and products. Biol Signals Recept 2000; 9: 137159.
  • 18
    Seegar H, Meck AO, Lippert TH. Effect of melatonin and metabolites on copper-mediated oxidation of low density lipoproteins. Br J Clin Pharmacol 1997; 44: 283284.
  • 19
    Tan DX, Manchester LC, Reiter RJ et al. Melatonin directly scavenges hydrogen peroxide: a potentially new metabolic pathway of melatonin biotransformation. Free Radical Biol Med 2000; 29: 11771185.
  • 20
    Tan DX, Manchester LC, Reiter RJ et al. A novel melatonin metabolite, cyclic 3-hydroxymelatonin: a biomarker of in vivo hydroxyl radical generation. Biochem Biophys Res Commun 1998; 253: 614620.
  • 21
    Li XJ, Zhang LM, Gu J, Zhang AZ, Sun FY. Melatonin decreases production of hydroxyl radical during ischemia-reperfusion. Acta Pharmacol Sin 1997; 18: 394396.
  • 22
    Stasica AP, Ulanski P, Rosiak JM. Melatonin as a hydroxyl radical scavenger. J Pineal Res 1998; 25: 6566.
  • 23
    Zang LY, Cosma H, Gardner H, Vallynathan V. Scavenging of reactive oxygen species by melatonin. Biochem Biophys Acta 1998; 1425: 469477.
  • 24
    Livrea MA, Tesoriere L, Tan DX, Reiter RJ. Radical and reactive intermediate-scavenging properties of melatonin in pure chemical systems. In: Handbook of Antioxydants, 2nd edn. CadenasE, ParkerL eds, Marcel Dekker, New York, 2002; pp. 615631.
  • 25
    Poeggeler B, Thuerman S, Dose A, Schoenke M, Burkhardt S, Hardeland R. Melatonin's unique radical scavenging properties-roles of its functional substituents as revealed by comparison with its structural analogs. J Pineal Res 2002; 33: 2030.
  • 26
    Costa EJ, Lopes RH, Lamy-Freund MT. Permeability of pure lipid bilayers to melatonin. J Pineal Res 1995; 19: 123126.
  • 27
    Shida CS, Castrucci AM, Lamy-Freund MT. High melatonin solubility in aqueous medium. J Pineal Res 1994; 16: 198201.
  • 28
    Menedez-Pelaez A, Reiter RJ, Guerrero JM, Puig-Domingo M, Howes K. Sexual dimorphism in N-acetiltransferase activity, hydroxyindol-O-methyltransferase activity and melatonin content in the harderian gland of Syrian hamsters: changes following gonadectomy. Proc Soc Exp Biol Med 1988; 187: 287291.
  • 29
    Okatani Y, Okamoto K, Hayasi K, Wakatsuki A, Tumura S, Sagara Y. Maternal-fetal transfer of melatonin in pregnant women near term. J Pineal Res 1998; 25: 129134.
  • 30
    Conti A, Conconi S, Hertens E, Skwarlo-Sonta K, Marcouska M, Maestroni GJM. Melatonin synthesis in mouse and human bone marrow. J Pineal Res 2000; 28: 193202.
  • 31
    Tan DX, Manchester LC, Reiter RJ, Qi W, Hanes MA, Farley NJ. High physiological levels of melatonin in the bile of mammals. Life Sci 1999; 65: 25232529.
  • 32
    Poeggeler B, Reiter RJ, Tan DX, Chen LD, Manchester LC. Melatonin, hydroxyl radical-mediated oxidative damage and aging: a hypothesis. J Pineal Res 1993; 14: 151168.
  • 33
    Menendez-Pelaez A, Poeggeler B, Reiter RJ, Barlow-Walden L, Pablos MI, Tan DX. Nuclear localization of melatonin in different mammalian tissues: immunocytochemical and radioimmunoassay evidence. J Cell Biochem 1993; 53: 373382.
  • 34
    Menendez-Pelaez A, Reiter RJ. Distribution of melatonin in mammalian tissues: reactive importance of nuclear verses cytosolic localization. J Pineal Res 1993; 15: 5969.
  • 35
    Reiter RJ, Tan DX, Manchester LC, Qi W. Biochemical reactivity of melatonin with reactive oxygen and nitrogen species: a review of the evidence. Cell Biochem Biophys 2001; 34: 237256.
  • 36
    Tan DX, Manchester LC, Reiter RJ, Plumer BF. Cyclic 3-hydroxymelatonin: a metabolite generated as a result of hydroxyl radical scavenging. Biol Signals Recept 1999; 8: 7074.
  • 37
    Tan DX, Manchester LC, Burkhardt S et al. N1-acetyl-N2 formyl-5-methoxykynuramine, a biogenic amine and melatonin metabolite, functions as a potent antioxidant. FASEB J 2001; 15: 22942296.
  • 38
    Antilla S. Biological effects of occupational and environmental exposure to chromium. In: Metal Ions in Biology and Medicine. ColleryP, ed., John Libbey, London, 1990; pp. 315319.
  • 39
    Leonard A, Lawerys RR. Carcinogenicity and mutagenicity of chromium. Mutat Res 1980: 76: 227239.
  • 40
    De Flora S, Banasco M, Serra D, Zanacchi P. Genotoxicity of chromium compounds: a review. Mutat Res 1990; 238: 99112.
  • 41
    Cederbaum AI, Qureshi A. Role of catalase and hydroxyl radicals in the oxidation of methanol by rat liver microsomes. Biochem Pharmacol 1982; 31: 329335.
  • 42
    Suthanthiran M, Solomon SD, Williams PS, Rubin AL, Novogrodsky A, Stenzel KH. Hydroxyl radical scavengers inhibit human natural killer cell activity. Nature 1984; 307: 276278.
  • 43
    Rahhal S, Richter HW. Reaction of hydroxyl radicals with the ferrous and ferric iron chelates of diethylenetriamine-N,N,N′,N′′,N′′-pentaacetate. Free Radic Res Commun 1989; 6: 369377.
  • 44
    Wink DA, Wink CB, Nims RW, Ford PC. Oxidizing intermediates generated in Fenton reagents: kinetic arguments against the intermediacy of the hydroxyl radical. Environ Health Perspect 1994; 102(Suppl. 3): 1115.
  • 45
    Parmar P, Limson J, Nyokong T, Daya S. Melatonin protects against copper-mediated free radical damage. J Pineal Res 2002; 32: 237242.
  • 46
    Cabrera J, Burkhardt S, Tan DX, Manchester LC, Karbownik M, Reiter RJ. Autoxidation and toxicant-induced oxidation of lipid and DNA in monkey liver: reduction of molecular damage by melatonin. Pharmacol Toxicol 2001; 89: 225230.
  • 47
    Allegra M, Reiter RJ, Tan DX, Gentile C, Tesoriere L, Librea MA. The chemistry of melatonin's interaction with reactive species. J Pineal Res 34: 110.
  • 48
    Limson J, Nyokong T, Daya S. The interaction of melatonin and its precursors with aluminum, cadmium, cooper, iron, lead and zinc: an adsorptive voltametric study. J Pineal Res 1998; 24: 1521.