SEARCH

SEARCH BY CITATION

references

  • Baldocchi, D., Falge, E., Gu, L., Olson, R., Hollinger, D., Running, S., Anthoni, P., Bernhofer, Ch., Davis, K., Evans, R., Fuentes, J., Goldstein, A., Katul, G., Law, B., Lee, X., Malhi, Y., Meyers, T., Munger, W., Oechel, W., Paw, U K. T., Pilegaard, K., Schmid, H. P., Valentini, R., Verma, S., Vesala, T., Wilson, K. and Wofsy, S. 2001. FLUXNET, A new tool to study the temporal and spatial variability of ecosystem-scale carbon dioxide, water vapor, and energy flux densities. Bull. Am. Meteorol. Soc. 82, 24152434.
  • Benson, G. S. and Sturm, M. 1993. Structure and wind transport of seasonal snow on the Arctic slope of Alaska. Ann Glaciol. 18, 261267.
  • Coyne, P. I. and Kelly, J. J. 1975. Carbon dioxide exchange over the Alaskan Arctic tundra, Meteorological assessment by an aerodynamic method. J. Appl. Ecol. 12, 587611.
  • Cubasch, U. and Meehal, G. A. 2001. Projections of future climate change. In Climate Change 2001 (IPCC), Cambridge University Press, Cambridge , UK , 525582.
  • Fahnestock, J. T., Jones, M. H. and Welker, J. M., 1999. Wintertime CO2 efflux from arctic soils, Inplications for annual carbon budgets. Global Biochem. Cycles 13, 775779.
  • Falge, E., Baldocchi, D., Olson, R., Anthoni, P., Aubient, M., Bernhofer, C., Burba, G., Ceulemans, R., Clement, R., Dolman, H., Granier, A., Gross, P., Grunwald, T., Hollinger, D., Jensen, N-O., Katul, G., Keronen, P., Kowalski, A., Lai, C. T., Law, B. E., Meyers, T., Moncrieff, J., Moors, E., Munger, J. W., Pilegarrd, K., Rannik, U., Rebmann, C., Suyker, A., Tenhunen, J., Tu, K., Verma, S., Vesala, T., Wilson, K. and Wofsy, S. 2001. Gap filling strategies for defensible annual sums of net ecosystem exchange. Agric. Forest Meteorol. 107, 4369.
  • Fan, S.-M., Goulden, M. L., Munger, J. W., Daube, B. C., Bakwin, P. S., Wofsy, S. C., Amthor, J. S., Fitzjarrald, D. R., Moore, K. E. and Moore, T. R. 1995. Environmental controls on the photosynthesis and respiration of a boreal lichen woodland: a growing season of whole-ecosystem exchange measurements by eddy correlation. Oecologia 102, 443452.
  • Fan, S. M., Wofsy, S. C., Bakwin, P. S., Jacob, D. J., Anderson, S. M., Kebabian, P. L., McManus, J. B., Kolb, C. E. and Fitzjarralf, D. R. 1992. Micrometeorological measurements of CH4 and CO2 exchange between the atmosphere and subarctic tundra. J. Geophys. Res. 97, 16,62716,643.
  • Gilmanov, T. G., and Oechel, W. C. 1995. New estimate of organic matter reserves and net primary production of the North American tundra ecosystems. J. Biogeogr. 22, 723741.
  • Goulden, M. L., Munger, J. W., Fan, S. M., Daube, B. C. and Wofsy, S. C. 1996. Measurements of carbon sequestration by long term eddy covariance methods and a critical evaluation of accuracy. Global Change Biol. 2, 169182.
  • Griffis, T. J., Rouse, W. R. and Waddington, J. M. 2000a. Interannual variability of net ecosystem CO2 exchange at a subarctic fen. Global Biochem. Cycles. 14, 11091211.
  • Griffis, T. J., Rouse, W. R. and Waddington, J. M. 2000b. Scaling net ecosystem CO2 exchange from the community to landscape-level at a subarctic fen. Global Change Biol. 6, 459473.
  • Harazono, Y. and Miyata, A. 1997. Evaluation of greenhouse gas fluxes over agricultural and natural ecosystems by means of micrometeorological methods. J. Agric. Meteorol. 52, 477480.
  • Harazono, Y., Mano, M., Yoshimoto, M., Vourlitis, G. L. and Oechel, W. C. 1998. CO2 budget of the Wet Sedge Tundra Ecosystem in Alaska, analyzed by continuously measured flux and a Tundra CO2 Budget Model (TCBM). Proceedings of the Sixth Sympo. on the Joint Siberian Permafrost Studies between Japan and Russia in 1997, 159174.
  • Harazono, Y., Miyata, A., Ota, N. and Oechel, W. C. 2000. Greenhouse gas flux at Arctic tundra ecosystem in winter and thawing period. Proceedings of 24th Conference on Agricultural and Forest Meteorology, 193194.
  • Joiner, D. W., Lafleur, P. M., McCaughy, J. H. and Bartlett, P. A. 1999. Interannual variability in carbon dioxide exchanges at a boreal wetland in the BOREAS northern study area. J. Geophys. Res. 104, 2766327672.
  • Kaimal, J. C. and Gaynor, J. E. 1991. Another look at sonic thermometry. Boundary Layer Meteorol. 56, 401410.
  • Kim, Y-W. 1998. Studies on fluxes of trace gases through the snowpack: Their implications to the global budgets. Ph.D. Dissertation, Hokkaido University , Japan , 142 pp.
  • Lafleur, P. M. 1999. Growing season energy and CO2 exchange at a subarctic boreal woodland. J. Geophys. Res. 104(D8), 95719580.
  • Lafleur, P. M., Roulet, N. T. and Admiral, S. W. 2001a. Annual cycle of CO2 exchange at a bog peatland. J. Geographic Res. 106(P2), 30713081.
  • Lafleur, P. M., Griffis T. J. and Rouse, W. R. 2001b. Interannual variability in net ecosystem CO2 exchange at the Arctic treeline. Arctic, Antarctic, Alpine Res. 33, 149157.
  • Leuning, R., Denmead, O. T., Miyata, A. and Kim, J. 2000. Source/sink distributions of heat, water vapour, carbon dioxide and methane in a rice paddy estimated using Lagrangian dispersion analysis. Agric. Forest Meteorol. 104, 233249.
  • Leuning, R. and Judd, M. J. 1996. The relative merits of open- and closed-path analysers for measurement of eddy fluxes. Global Change Biol. 2, 241254.
  • Leuning, R., Ohtaki, E., Denmead, O. T. and Lang, A. R. G. 1982. Effects of heat and water vapor transport on eddy covariance measurement of CO2 fluxes. Boundary Layer Meteorol. 23, 209222.
  • Lewis, M. C. and Callaghan, T. V. 1976. Tundra. In Vegetation and the Atmosphere, vol. 2, Academic Press, New York , 399433.
  • Lloyd, C. 2001. The measurement and modeling of the carbon dioxide exchange at a high Arctic site in Svalbard. Global Change Biol. 7, 405426.
  • Mano, M., Harazono, Y., Miyata, A., Zulueta, R. C. and Oechel, W. C. 2002. Net CO2 budget and seasonal variation of CO2 fluxes at a wet sedge tundra ecosystem at Barrow, Alaska during the 2000 growing season. J. Agric. Meteorol. 58, in press (in Japanese with English captions and abstracts).
  • Martin, S., Munoz, E. and Dreucker, R. 1997. Recent observations of a spring-summer warming over the Arctic Ocean. Gyophys. Res. Lett. 24, 1259.
  • Mast, M. A., Wickland, K. P., Stuegl, R. T. and Crlow, D. W. 1998. Winter fluxes of CO2 and CH4 from subalpine soils in Rocky Mountain National park, Colorado. Global Biochem. Cycles 12, 607620.
  • Miyata, A. 2001. Observational study on methane exchange between wetland ecosystem and the atmosphere. Bull. Natl. Agro-Environ. Sci. 19, 61183.
  • Miyata, A., Leuning, R., Denmead, O. T., Kim, J. and Harazono, Y. 2000. Carbon dioxide and methane fluxes from an intermittently flooded paddy field. Agric Forest Meteorol. 102, 287303.
  • Moore, C. J. 1986. Frequency response corrections for eddy correlation system, Boundary Layer Meteorol. 37, 1735.
  • Neumann, H. H., Harog, G., King, K. M. and Chipanshi, A. C. 1994. Carbon dioxide fluxes over a raised open bog at the Kinosheo lake tower site during the Northern Wetlands Study. J. Geophys. Res. 99(D1), 15291538.
  • Oechel, W. C. and Collins, N. J. 1976. Comparative CO2 exchange patterns in mosses from two tundra habitats at Barrow, Alaska. Can. J. Bot. 54, 1976.
  • Oechel, W. C. and Vourlitis, G. L. 1994. The effects of climatic change on land-atmosphere feedbacks in Arctic tundra regions. Tree 9, 324329.
  • Oechel, W. C. and Vourlitis, G. L. 1997. Climate change in northern latitudes: Alterations in ecosystem structure and function and effects on carbon sequestration. In Global Change and Arctic Terrestrial Ecosystems, Springer, Berlin , 381401.
  • Oechel, W. C., Hastings, S. J., Vourlitis, G. L., Jenkins, M., Richers, G. and Grulke, N. 1993. Recent change of Arctic tundra ecosystems from a net carbon dioxide sink to source. Nature 361, 520523.
  • Oechel, W. C., Vourlitis, G. L. and Hastings, S. J. 1997. Cold season CO2 emissions from arctic soil. Global Biochem. Cycles 11, 163172.
  • Oechel, W. C., Vourlitis, G. L., Hastings, S. J., Ault, R. P. and Bryant, P. 1998. The effects of water table manipulation and elevated temperature on the net CO2 flux of wet sedge tundra ecosystems. Global Change Biol. 4, 7790.
  • Oechel, W. C., Vourlitis, G. L., Hastings, S. J. and Bachkarev, S. A. 1995. Changes in Arctic CO2 flux over two decades: Effects of climatic change at Barrow, Alaska. Ecol. Appl. 5, 846855.
  • Oechel, W. C., Vourlitis, G. L., Hastings, S. J., Zulueta, R. C., Hinzman, L. and Kane, D. 2000. Acclimation of ecosystem CO2 exchange in the Alaskan Arctic in response to decadal climatic warming. Nature 406, 978981.
  • Ota, N., Miyata, A., Harazono, Y., Nakamoto, K., Zulueta, R. C. and Oechel, W. C. 2000. Carbon dioxide and methane fluxes over arctic coastal tundra at Barrow, Alaska in 1999, Proceedings of the 8th Symposium on the Joint Siberian Permafrost Studies between Japan and Russia in 1999, 202207.
  • Pomeroy, J. W. 1989. A process-based model of snow drifting. Ann. Glaciol. 13, 237240.
  • Post, W. M., Emanuel, W. R., Zinke, P. J. and Stangenberger, A. G. 1982. Soil carbon pools and world life zones. Nature 298, 156159.
  • Rigor, I. G., Colony, R. L. and Martin, S. 2000. Variations in surface air temperature observations in the Arctic, 1979–97. J. Climate. 13, 896914.
  • Shurpali, N. J., Verma, S. B. and Kim, J. 1995. Carbon dioxide exchange in a peatland ecosystem. J. Geophys. Res. 100, 1431914326.
  • Solomon, D. K. and Cerling, T. E. 1987. The annual carbon dioxide cycle in a mountain soil: Observations, modelling, and implications for weathering. Water Resources Res. 23, 22572265.
  • Tanner, C. B. and Thurtell, G. W. 1969. Anemoclinometer measurements of Reynolds stress and heat transport in the atmospheric surface layer. University of Wisconsin Tech. Rep. , ECOM-66-G22-F, 82 pp.
  • Tieszen, L. L. 1975. CO2 exchange in the Alaskan arctic tundra seasonal changes in the rate of photosynthesis of four species. Photosynthetica 9, 376390.
  • Vourlitis, G. L. and Oechel, W. C. 1997. Landscape-scale CO2, H2O vapour and energy flux of moist-wet coastal tundra ecosystems over two growing season. J. Ecol. 85, 575590.
  • Vourlitis, G. L., Harazono, Y., Oechel, W. C., Yoshimoto, M. and Mano, M. 2000. Spatial and temporal variations in hectare-scale net CO2 flux, respiration and gross primary production of Arctic tundra ecosystems. Funct. Ecol. 14, 203214.
  • Walker, D. A. and Acevedo, W. 1987. Vegetation and a Landsat-derived cover map of the Beechey Point quadrangle arctic coastal plain, Alaska. Cold Reasions Research and Engineering Laboratory Report, 8785.
  • Webb, E. K., Pearman, G. I. and Leuning, R. 1980. Correction of flux measurements for density effects due to heat and water vapour transfer. Q. J. R. Meteorol. Soc. 106, 85100.
  • Whiting, G. J. 1994. CO2 exchange in the Hudson bay lowlands: Community characteristics and multispectral reflectance properties. J. Geophys. Res. 99(D1), 15191528.
  • Whiting, G. J., Bartlett, D. S., Fan, S., Bakwin, P. S. and Wofsy, S. C. 1992. Biosphere/Atmosphere CO2 exchange in tundra ecosystems, Community characteristics and relationships with multispectral surface reflectance. J. Geophys. Res. 97(D15), 1667116680.
  • Wofsy, S. C., Goulden, M. L., Munger, J. W., Fan, S. M., Bakwin P. S., Daube, B. C., Bassow, S. L. and Bazzaz, F. A. 1993. Net excahnge of CO2 in a mid-latitude forest. Science 260, 13141317.
  • Yoshimoto, M., Harazono, Y., Vourlitis, G. L. and Oechel, W. C. 1996. The heat and water budgets in the active layer of the Arctic tundra at Barrow, Alaska. J. Agric. Meteorol. 52, 293300 (in Japanese with English abstract and figure captions).
  • Yoshimoto, M., Harazono, Y. and Oechel, W. C. 1997. Effects of micrometeorology on the CO2 budget in mid-summer over the Arctic tundra at Prudhoe Bay, Alaska. J. Agric. Meteorol. 53, 110 (in Japanese with English abstract and figure captions).