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Uterine Chemokines in Reproductive Physiology and Pathology

Authors

  • UMIT A. KAYISLI,

    1. UMIT A. KAYISLI
      NEAL G. MAHUTTE
      AYDIN ARICI
      Division of Reproductive Endocrinology, Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Yale University School of Medicine, New Haven, CT, USA,
    2. UMIT A. KAYISLI
      Department of Histology and Embryology, Akdeniz University School of Medicine, Antalya, Turkey
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  • NEAL G. MAHUTTE,

    1. UMIT A. KAYISLI
      NEAL G. MAHUTTE
      AYDIN ARICI
      Division of Reproductive Endocrinology, Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Yale University School of Medicine, New Haven, CT, USA,
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  • AYDIN ARICI

    1. UMIT A. KAYISLI
      NEAL G. MAHUTTE
      AYDIN ARICI
      Division of Reproductive Endocrinology, Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Yale University School of Medicine, New Haven, CT, USA,
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Address reprint requests to Aydin Arici, Division of Reproductive Endocrinology, Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Yale University School of Medicine, 333 Cedar Street, New Haven, CT 06520-8063, USA. E-mail: aydin.arici@yale.edu

Abstract

PROBLEM: Chemokines are increasingly recognized as important regulators of uterine function.

METHODS OF STUDY: The following is a review of uterine chemokines, especially monocyte chemotactic protein (MCP)-1, interleukin (IL)-8, and regulated-upon-activation normal-T-cell-expressed and -secreted (RANTES) protein, in reproductive physiology and pathology.

RESULTS: It is increasingly clear that IL-8, MCP-1, RANTES and their receptors are produced by endometrial, myometrial, and trophoblast cell types in a timed and co-ordinated manner. In addition to the regulation of leukocyte migration and function, uterine chemokines also display specific roles in endometrial angiogenesis, apoptosis, proliferation, and differentiation. IL-8, MCP-1 and RANTES are regulated by local growth factors and cytokines such as tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α), interferon-γ, and IL-1. IL-8 takes part in cervical ripening and parturition. IL-8, MCP-1 and RANTES are also found at high levels in the peritoneal fluid of women with endometriosis.

CONCLUSION: Co-ordination of chemokine–chemokine receptor interactions plays an important role in the menstrual cycle and successful pregnancy. Moreover, unbalanced chemokine expression contributes to pathologic conditions typified by uncontrolled cellular proliferation, migration and invasion.

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