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Keywords:

  • Antiphospholipid antibodies;
  • autoantibodies;
  • complement levels;
  • intrauterine hematomas;
  • pregnancy

Problem: To examine the associative relationship among autoantibodies, C4 levels and intrauterine hematomas (IUH) in more detail than in the studies published earlier.

Method Of Study: We performed a retrospective study of 54 women with poor obstetric outcomes. Sera were screened for antinuclear antibodies (ANA), anti-DNA antibodies, antiphospholipid antibodies (aPL), and antithyroid antibodies. C4-complement and gammaglobulin levels were also monitored. We compared the main variables in IUH complicated pregnancy group with the risk pregnancy group without IUH. We also compared these variables in the IUH cases before and during IUH.

Results: Eight IUH were detected. The average number of spontaneous losses for these eight women was 3.3 ± 2.1 (range: 1–8). aPL was present in 100% of cases. ANAs and hypergammaglobulinemia were present in 50% of cases and low C4 in 87.5% of cases. After comparing these variables apart from C4 before and during IUH, we found no statistical differences. However, C4 was low in four patients before IUH and in seven patients during IUH (OR: 7.0; 95% CI: 0.57–86.33). When we compared autoantibodies apart from lupus anticoagulant (LAC) between the two groups, no differences were observed. However, seven of the eight (87.5%) patients with IUH were LAC positive whereas only 24 of the 46 patients (52.1%) were positive in the non-IUH group (OR: 6.42; 95% CI: 0.73–56.41). Rapid plasma reagin was present in 8/46 in the non-IUH group (16.7%) and 5/8 in the IUH group (62.5%) P < 0.015).

Conclusions: In women with poor obstetric histories, autoantibodies, especially antiphospholid antibodies, may play a role in the IUH development especially if low C4 and/or hypergammaglobulinemia are present.