In humans, the cytokines, whose production is tightly restricted to Th1 cells are IFN-γ and TNF-β, while the production of IL-4 and IL-5 is restricted to Th2 cells.21 In the present study, IFN-γ and βL-4 were selected because during the standardization procedure we saw that they are more easily detected by the flow-cytometer laser beam (increased sensitivity in comparison with the detection of TNF-β and IL-5).
Effect of Intravenous Immunoglobulin Treatment on the Th1/Th2 Balance in Women with Recurrent Spontaneous Abortions
Article first published online: 31 JAN 2003
American Journal of Reproductive Immunology
Volume 49, Issue 1, pages 21–29, January 2003
How to Cite
Graphou, O., Chioti, A., Pantazi, A., Tsekoura, C., Kontopoulou, V., Georgiadou, E., Balafoutas, C., Koussoulakos, S., Margaritis, L. H. and Varla-Leftherioti, M. (2003), Effect of Intravenous Immunoglobulin Treatment on the Th1/Th2 Balance in Women with Recurrent Spontaneous Abortions. American Journal of Reproductive Immunology, 49: 21–29. doi: 10.1034/j.1600-0897.2003.01169.x
A combination of anti-CD3 and anti-CD8 antibodies was used for an indirect detection of the CD4+ cells (CD4+ = CD3+ − CD3+ CD8+) (Fig. 1). This indirect protocol was used because during the standardization of the method it was found that the use of PMA in the stimulation procedure (PMA is considered to be necessary for effective stimulation and intracellular cytokine detection20) had a down-regulating effect on the expression of CD4 molecules.
[ Indirect detection of CD4+ cells. ]
- Issue published online: 31 JAN 2003
- Article first published online: 31 JAN 2003
- Submitted March 29, 2002; accepted July 4, 2002.
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