• 1
    The Sixth Report of the Joint National Committee on Prevention, Detection, Evaluation, and Treatment of High Blood Pressure. Arch Intern Med 1997; 157: 24132446.
  • 2
    Expert Panel on Detection, Evaluation, and Treatment of High Blood Cholesterol in Adults. Summary of the second report of the National Cholesterol Education Program (NCEP) (Adult Treatment Panel II) J Am Med Assoc 1993; 269: 30153023.
  • 3
    Foley RN, Parfrey PS, Sarnak MJ. Clinical epidemiology of cardiovascular disease in chronic renal disease. Am J Kidney Dis 1998; 32: S112119.
  • 4
    Wolfe RA, Ashby VB, Milford EL et al. Comparison of mortality in all patients on dialysis, patients on dialysis awaiting transplantation, and recipients of a first cadaveric transplant. N Engl J Med 1999; 341: 17251730.
  • 5
    Kasiske BL, Chakkera H, Roel J. Explained and unexplained ischemic heart disease risk after renal transplantation. J Am Soc Nephrol 2000; 11: 17351743.
  • 6
    Opelz G, Wujciak T, Ritz E. Association of chronic kidney graft failure with recipient blood pressure. Collaborative Transplant Study. Kidney Int 1998; 53: 217222.DOI: 10.1046/j.1523-1755.1998.00744.x
  • 7
    Mange KC, Cizman B, Joffe M, Feldman HI. Arterial hypertension and renal allograft survival. J Am Med Assoc 2000; 283: 633638.
  • 8
    Abdulmassih Z, Chevalier A, Bader C, Drüeke T, Kreis H, Lacour B. Role of lipid disturbances in the atherosclerosis of renal transplant patients. Clin Transplant 1992; 6: 106113.
  • 9
    Kasiske BL, Guijarro C, Massy ZA, Wiederkehr MR, Ma JZ. Cardiovascular disease after renal transplantation. J Am Soc Nephrol 1996; 7: 158165.
  • 10
    Aakhus S, Dahl K, Widerøe TE. Cardiovascular morbidity and risk factors in renal transplant patients. Nephrol Dial Transplant 1999; 14: 648654.
  • 11
    Kasiske BL, Klinger D. Cigarette smoking in renal transplant recipients. J Am Soc Nephrol 2000; 11: 753759.
  • 12
    Kasiske BL. Risk factors for accelerated atherosclerosis in renal transplant recipients. Am J Medical 1988; 84: 985992.
  • 13
    Cosio FG, Alamir A, Yim S et al. Patient survival after renal transplantation. I. The impact of dialysis pre-transplant. Kidney Int 1998; 53: 767772.
  • 14
    Hegeman RL, Hunsicker LG. Chronic rejection in renal allografts: importance of cardiovascular risk factors. Clin Transplant 1995; 9: 135139.
  • 15
    Ridker PM. High-sensitivity C-reactive protein: potential adjunct for global risk assessment in the primary prevention of cardiovascular disease. Circulation 2001; 103: 18131818.
  • 16
    Humar A, Gillingham K, Payne WD et al. Increased incidence of cardiac complications in kidney transplant recipients with cytomegalovirus disease. Transplantation 2000; 70: 310313.
  • 17
    Eikelboom JW, Lonn E, Genest JJ, Hankey G, Yusuf S. Homocyst(e)ine and cardiovascular disease: a critical review of the epidemiologic evidence. Ann Intern Med 1999; 131: 363375.
  • 18
    Bostom AG, Gohh RY, Tsai MY et al. Excess prevalence of fasting and postmethionine-loading hyperhomocysteinemia in stable renal transplant recipients. Arterioscler Thromb Vasc Biol 1997; 17: 18941900.
  • 19
    Arnadottir M, Hultberg B, Wahlberg J, Fellström B, Dimeny E. Serum total homocysteine concentration before and after renal transplantation. Kidney Int 1998; 54: 13801384.DOI: 10.1046/j.1523-1755.1998.00112.x
  • 20
    Boaz M, Smetana S. Secondary prevention with antioxidants of cardiovascular disease in end-stage renal disease. Lancet 2000; 356: 12131218.
  • 21
    Wannamethee S, Sharper G, Perry I. Serum creatinine concentration and risk of cardiovascular disease. Stroke 1997; 28: 557563.
  • 22
    Dineen SF, Gerstein HC. The association of microalbuminuria and mortality in non-insulin dependent diabetes mellitus. Arch Intern Med 1997; 157: 14131418.
  • 23
    Feldt-Rasmussen B, Strandgaard S, Broch-Johnsen K. Arterial hypertension, microalbuminuria, and risk of ischemic heart disease. Hypertension 2000; 35: 898903.
  • 24
    Roodnat JI, Mulder PGH, Rischew-Vos et al. Proteinuria after renal transplantation affects not only graft survival but also patient survival. Transplantation 2001; 72: 488444.
  • 25
    Kasiske BL, Ramos EL, Gaston RS et al. The evaluation of renal transplant candidates: clinical practice guidelines. J Am Soc Nephrol 1995; 6: 134.
  • 26
    Diabetes Control and Complications Trial. Effect of intensive diabetes management on macrovascular events and risk factors in the Diabetes Control and Complications Trial. Am J Cardiol 1995; 75: 894903.
  • 27
    Mailloux LU, Levey AS. Hypertension in patients with chronic renal disease. Am J Kidney Dis 1998; 32: S120S141.
  • 28
    Kasiske BL, Vazquez MA, Harmon WE et al. Recommendations for the outpatient surveillance of renal transplant recipients. J Am Soc Nephrol 2000; 11: S1.
  • 29
    Agency for Health Care Policy and Research. Smoking cessation clinical practical guidelines. J Am Med Assoc 1996; 275: 12701280.
  • 30
    Antiplatelet Trialists' Collaboration. Collaborative overview of randomized trials of antiplatelet therapy – I: prevention of death, myocardial infarction, and stroke by prolonged antiplatelet therapy in various categories of patients. Br Med J 1994; 308: 81106.
  • 31
    Eccles M, Freemantle N, Mason J. North of England evidence based guideline development project: guideline on the use of aspirin as secondary prophylaxis for vascular disease in primary care. North of England Aspirin Guideline Development Group. Br Med J 1998; 316: 13031309.
  • 32
    Kwak B, Mulhaupt F, Myit S, Mach F. Statins as a newly recognized type of immunomodulator. Nat Med 2000; 6: 13991402.
  • 33
    Hosenpud JD, Bennett LE, Keck BM, Boucek MM, Novick RJ. The Registry of the International Society for Heart and Lung Transplantation: seventeenth official report-2000. J Heart Lung Transplant 2000; 19: 909931.
  • 34
    Miller LW. Transplant coronary artery disease. Editorial. J Heart Lung Transplant 1992; 11: S14.
  • 35
    Gao HZ, Hunt SA, Alderman EL, Liang D, Yeung AC, Schroeder JS. Relation of donor age and preexisting coronary artery disease on angiography and intracoronary ultrasound to later development of accelerated allograft coronary artery disease. J Am Coll Cardiol 1997; 29: 623629.
  • 36
    Costanzo MR, Naftel DC, Pritzker MR et al. Heart transplant coronary artery disease detected by coronary angiography: a multi-institutional study. (Abstract.) J Heart Lung Transplant 1996; 15: S39.
  • 37
    Winters GL, Kendall TJ, Radio SJ et al. Posttransplant obesity and hyperlipidemia: major predictors of severity of coronary arteriopathy in failed human heart allografts. J Heart Transplant 1990; 9: 364371.
  • 38
    Miller LW. Allograft coronary disease: the role of antigen independent mechanisms in pathogenesis. Ann Transplant 1997; 2: 6164.
  • 39
    Kobashigawa JA, Miller L, Yeung A et al. Does acute rejection correlate with the development of transplant coronary artery disease? A multicenter study using intravascular ultrasound. J Heart Lung Transplant 1995; 14: S221226.
  • 40
    Liu Z, Colovai AI, Tugulea S et al. Indirect recognition of donor HLA-DR peptides in organ allograft rejection. J Clin Invest 1996; 98: 11501157.
  • 41
    Hornick PI, Mason PD, Baker RJ et al. Significant frequencies of T cells with indirect anti-donor specificity in heart graft recipients with chronic rejection. Circulation 2000; 101: 2405.
  • 42
    Mills RM, Naftel DC, Kirklin JK et al. Heart transplant rejection with hemodynamic compromise: a multiinstitutional study of the role of endomyocardial cellular infiltrate. J Heart Lung Transplant 1997; 16: 813821.
  • 43
    Hammond EH, Ensley RD, Yowell RL et al. Vascular rejection of human cardiac allografts and the role of humoral immunity in chronic allograft rejection. Transplant Proc 1991; 23: 2630.
  • 44
    Miller LW, Wesp A, Jennison SH et al. Vascular rejection in heart transplant recipients. J Heart Lung Transplant 1993; 12: S147152.
  • 45
    Olsen SL, Wagoner LE, Hammond EH et al. Vascular rejection in heart transplantation: clinical correlation, treatment options, and future considerations. J Heart Lung Transplant 1993; 12: S135S142.
  • 46
    Jordan SC, Quartel AW, Czer LS et al. Posttransplant therapy using high-dose human immunoglobulin (intravenous gammaglobulin) to control acute humoral rejection in renal and cardiac allograft recipients and potential mechanism of action. Transplantation 1998; 66: 800805.
  • 47
    Gao SZ, Schroeder JS, Alderman EL et al. Prevalence of accelerated coronary artery disease in heart transplant survivors. Comparison of cyclosporine and azathioprine regimens. Circulation 1989; 80: 100105.
  • 48
    Miller LW. Optimal use of cyclosporine in cardiac transplantation. Transplant Proc 1994; 26: 27002703.
  • 49
    Taylor DO, Barr ML, Radovancevic B et al. A randomized, multicenter comparison of tacrolimus and cyclosporine immunosuppressive regimens in cardiac transplantation: decreased hyperlipidemia and hypertension with tacrolimus. J Heart Lung Transplant 1999; 18: 336345.
  • 50
    Hauptman PJ, Nakagawa T, Tanaka H, Libby P. Acute rejection: culprit or coincidence in the pathogenesis of cardiac graft vascular disease? J Heart Lung Transplant 1995; 14: S173180.
  • 51
    Gao SZ, Schroeder JS, Alderman EL et al. Clinical and laboratory correlates of accelerated coronary artery disease in the cardiac transplant patient. Circulation 1987; 76: V5661.
  • 52
    Valantine HA. Role of lipids in allograft vascular disease: a multicenter study of intimal thickening detected by intravascular ultrasound. J Heart Lung Transplant 1995; 14: S234237.
  • 53
    Wenke K, Meiser B, Thiery J et al. Simvastatin reduces graft vessel disease and mortality after heart transplantation: a four-year randomized trial. Circulation 1997; 96: 13981402.
  • 54
    Valantine HA, Schroeder JS. HMG-CoA reductase inhibitors reduce transplant coronary artery disease and mortality: evidence for antigen-independent mechanisms? Circulation 1997; 96: 13701373.
  • 55
    Hoang K, Chen YD, Reaven G et al. Diabetes and dyslipidemia. A new model for transplant coronary artery disease. Circulation 1998; 97: 21602168.
  • 56
    Grattan MT, Moreno-Cabral CE, Starnes VA, Oyer PE, Stinson EB, Shumway NE. Cytomegalovirus infection is associated with cardiac allograft rejection and atherosclerosis. J Am Med Assoc 1989; 261: 35613566.
  • 57
    Kendall TJ, Wilson JE, Radio SJ et al. Cytomegalovirus and other herpesviruses: do they have a role in the development of accelerated coronary arterial disease in human heart allografts? J Heart Lung Transplant 1992; 11: S1420.
  • 58
    Tuder RM, Weinberg A, Panajotopoulos N, Kalil J. Cytomegalovirus infection amplifies class I major histocompatibility complex expression on cultured human endothelial cells. J Heart Lung Transplant 1994; 13: 129138.
  • 59
    Kendall TJ, Wilson JE, Radio SJ et al. Cytomegalovirus and other herpesviruses: do they have a role in the development of accelerated coronary arterial disease in human heart allografts? J Heart Lung Transplant 1992; 11: S1420.
  • 60
    Cooke GE, Eaton GM, Whitby G et al. Plasma atherogenic markers in congestive heart failure and posttransplant (heart) patients. J Am Coll Cardiol 2000; 36: 509516.
  • 61
    Yeung AC, Davis SF, Hauptman PJ et al. Incidence and progression of transplant coronary artery disease over 1 year: results of a multicenter trial with use of intravascular ultrasound. Multicenter Intravascular Ultrasound Transplant Study Group. J Heart Lung Transplant 1995; 14: S215220.
  • 62
    Lim TT, Botas J, Ross H et al. Are heart-lung transplant recipients protected from developing transplant coronary artery disease? A case-matched intracoronary ultrasound study. Circulation 1996; 94: 15731577.
  • 63
    Berry GJ, Rizeg MN, Weiss LM, Billingham ME. Graft coronary disease in pediatric heart and combined heart-lung transplant recipients: a study of fifteen cases. J Heart Lung Transplant 1993; 12: S309319.
  • 64
    Kawai A, Pardis IL, Keenan RJ et al. Chronic rejection in heart-lung transplant recipients: the relationship between obliterative bronchiolitis and coronary artery disease. Transplant Proc 1995; 27: 12881289.
  • 65
    Smith JA, Stewart S, Roberts M et al. Significance of graft coronary artery disease in heart-lung transplant recipients. Transplant Proc 1995; 27: 20192020.
  • 66
    Snell GI, Richardson M, Griffiths AP, Williams TJ, Esmore DS. Coronary artery disease in potential lung transplant recipients > 50 years old: the role of coronary intervention. Chest 1999; 116: 874879.
  • 67
    The American Society for Transplant Physicians (ASTP)/American Thoracic Society (ATS)/European Respiratory Society (ERS) /International Society for Heart and Lung Transplantation (ISHLT). International guidelines for the selection of lung transplant candidates. Am J Respir Crit Care Med 1998; 158: 335339.
  • 68
    Textor SC, Wiesner R, Wilson DJ et al. Systemic and renal hemodynamic differences between FK506 and cyclosporine A in liver transplant recipients. Transplantation 1993; 55: 13321339.
  • 69
    Cicognani C, Malavolti M, Morselli-Labate AM, Zamboni L, Sama C, Barbara L. Serum lipid and lipoprotein patterns in patients with liver cirrhosis and chronic active hepatitis. Arch Intern Med 1997; 157: 792796.
  • 70
    Grant WC, Wasserman F, Rodensky PL, Thomson RV. The incidence of myocardial infarction in portal cirrhosis. Ann Intern Med 1959; 51: 774779.
  • 71
    Vanecek R. Atherosclerosis and cirrhosis of the liver. Bull World Health Organ 1976; 53: 567570.
  • 72
    Gordon T, Kannel WB. Drinking habits and cardiovascular disease: the Framingham Study. Am Heart J 1983; 105: 667673.
  • 73
    Gaziano JM, Buring JE, Breslow JL et al. Moderate alcohol intake, increased levels of high-density lipoprotein and its subfractions, and decreased risk of myocardial infarction. N Engl J Med 1993; 329: 18291834.
  • 74
    Textor SC, Taler SJ, Canzanello VJ, Schwartz L, Augustine J. Posttransplantation hypertension related to calcineurin inhibitors. Liver Transpl 2000; 6: 521530.
  • 75
    Canzanello VJ, Schwartz L, Taler SJ, Textor SC, Wiesner RH, Porayko MK. Evolution of cardiovascular risk after liver transplantation. a comparison of cyclosporine A and tacrolimus (FK506). Liver Transpl Surg 1997; 3: 19.
  • 76
    Munoz SJ. Hyperlipidemia and other coronary risk factors after orthotopic liver transplantation: pathogenesis, diagnosis, and management. Liver Transpl Surg 1995; 1: 2938.
  • 77
    Sheiner PA, Magliocca JF, Bodian CA et al. Long-term medical complications in patients surviving ≥ 5 years after liver transplant. Transplantation 2000; 69: 781789.
  • 78
    Abbasoglu O, Levy MF, Brkic BB et al. Ten years of liver transplantation: an evolving understanding of late graft loss. Transplantation 1997; 64: 1801.
  • 79
    Belli LS, De Carlis L, Rondinara G et al. Early cyclosporine monotherapy in liver transplantation: a 5-year follow-up of a prospective, randomized trial. Hepatology 1998; 27: 15241529.
  • 80
    Stegall MD, Everson GT, Schroter G et al. Prednisone withdrawal late after adult liver transplantation reduces diabetes, hypertension, and hypercholesterolemia without causing graft loss. Hepatology 1997; 25: 173.
  • 81
    Manzarbeitia C, Reigh DJ, Rothstein KD, Braitman LE, Levin S, Munoz SJ. Tacrolimus conversion improves hyperlipidemic status in stable liver transplant recipients. Liver Transpl 2001; 7: 9399.
  • 82
    Painter P, Krasnoff J, Paul SM, Ascher NL. Physical activity and health-related quality of life in liver transplant recipients. Liver Transpl 2001; 7: 213219.
  • 83
    Chavers BM, Kim EM, Matas AJ, Gillingham KJ, Najarian JS, Mauer SM. Causes of kidney allograft loss in a large pediatric population at a single center. Pediatr Nephrol 1994; 8: 5761.
  • 84
    Kim MS, Jabs K, Harmon WE. Long-term patient survival in a pediatric renal transplantation program. Transplantation 1991; 51: 413417.
  • 85
    Levey AS, Beto JA, Coronado BE et al. Controlling the epidemic of cardiovascular disease in chronic renal disease: what do we know? what do we need to learn? where do we go from here? National Kidney Foundation Task Force on Cardiovascular Disease. Am J Kidney Dis 1998; 32: 853906.
  • 86
    National Institutes of Health. US Renal Data System, USRDS 2000 Annual Data Report. Bethesda, MD: The National Institutes of Health, National Institute of Diabetes and Digestive and Kidney Diseases; 2000.
  • 87
    Broyer M, Guest G, Gagnadoux MF, Beurton D. Hypertension following renal transplantation in children. Pediatr Nephrol 1987; 1: 1621.
  • 88
    Gordjani N, Offner G, Hoyer PF, Brodehl J. Hypertension after renal transplantation in patients treated with cyclosporin and azathioprine. Arch Dis Child 1990; 65: 275279.
  • 89
    Sorof JM, Sullivan EK, Tejani A, Portman RJ. Antihypertensive medication and renal allograft failure: a North American Pediatric Renal Transplant Cooperative Study report. J Am Soc Nephrol 1999; 10: 13241330.
  • 90
    Baluarte HJ, Gruskin AB, Ingelfinger JR, Stablein D, Tejani A. Analysis of hypertension in children post renal transplantation – a report of the North American Pediatric Renal Transplant Cooperative Study (NAPRTCS). Pediatr Nephrol 1994; 8: 570573.
  • 91
    Matteucci MC, Giordano U, Calzolari A, Turchetta A, Santilli A, Rizzoni G. Left ventricular hypertrophy, treadmill tests, and 24-hour blood pressure in pediatric transplant patients. Kidney Int 1999; 56: 15661570.
  • 92
    Silverstein DM, Palmer J, Polinsky MS, Braas C, Conley SB, Baluarte HJ. Risk factors for hyperlipidemia in long-term pediatric renal transplant recipients. Pediatr Nephrol 2000; 14: 105110.
  • 93
    Sharma AK, Myers TA, Hunninghake DB, Matas AJ, Kashtan CE. Hyperlipidemia in long-term survivors of pediatric renal transplantation. Clin Transplant 1994; 8: 252257.
  • 94
    McDiarmid SV, Gornbein JA, Fortunat M et al. Serum lipid abnormalities in pediatric liver transplant patients. Transplantation 1992; 53: 109115.
  • 95
    Unnithan VB, Veehof SHE, Rosenthal P, Mudge C, O'Brien TH, Painter P. Fitness testing of pediatric liver transplant recipients. Liver Transpl 2001; 7: 206212.
  • 96
    Wagner K, Webber SA, Kurland G et al. New-onset diabetes mellitus in pediatric thoracic organ recipients receiving tacrolimus-based immunosuppression. Journal of Heart & Lung Transplantation 1997; 16: 275282.
  • 97
    Carroll PB, Rilo H, Reyes J et al. FK 506-associated diabetes mellitus in the pediatric transplant population is a rare complication. Transplant Proc 1991; 23: 31713172.
  • 98
    Furth S, Neu A, Colombani P, Plotnick L, Turner ME, Fivush B. Diabetes as a complication of tacrolimus (FK506) in pediatric renal transplant patients. Pediatr Nephrol 1996; 10: 6466.
  • 99
    Lilien M, Duran M, Van Hoeck K, Poll-The BT, Schroder C. Hyperhomocyst(e)inaemia in children with chronic renal failure. Nephrol Dial Transplant 1999; 14: 366368.
  • 100
    Krmar RT, Ferraris JR, Ramirez JA et al. Hyperhomocysteinemia in stable pediatric, adolescents, and young adult renal transplant recipients. Transplantation 2001; 71: 17481751.
  • 101
    National Heart Lung and Blood Institute. Update on the 1987 Task Force on High Blood Pressure in Children and Adolescents: a Working Group from the National High Blood Pressure Education Program. Pediatrics 1996; 98: 649658.
  • 102
    Sinaiko AR. Hypertension in children. N Engl J Med 1996; 335: 19681972.
  • 103
    Bartosh SM, Aronson AJ. Childhood hypertension. An update on etiology, diagnosis, and treatment. Pediatr Clin North Am 1999; 46: 235252.
  • 104
    National Cholesterol Education Program. Report of the Expert Panel on Blood Cholesterol Levels in Children and Adolescents. Pediatrics 1992; 89: 525584.