• 1
    Billingham RE, Brent L, Medawar P. Actively acquired tolerance of foreign cells. Nature 1953; 172: 603606.
  • 2
    Billingham RE, Brent L. Actively acquired tolerance of foreign cells in newborn animals. Proc R Soc (Lond) 1956; 146B: 7892.
  • 3
    Billingham RE, Brent L. Quantitative studies on tissue transplantation immunity. IV. Induction of tolerance in newborn mice and studies on the phenomenon of runt disease. Philos Trans (Biol Sci) 1959; 242B: 439444.
  • 4
    Billingham RE, Brent L, Medawar P. Quantitative studies on tissue transplantation immunity. III. Actively acquired tolerance. Philos Trans (Biol Sci) 1956; 239B: 357414.
  • 5
    Medawar PB. A discussion on immunological tolerance. Proc R Soc (Lond) 1956; 146B: 18.
  • 6
    Brooks CG. Neonatally induced transplantation tolerance: In vitro evidence supporting a clonal inactivation mechanism. Eur J Immunol 1975; 5: 741747.
  • 7
    Streilein JW, Klein J. Neonatal tolerance induction across regions of H-2 complex. J Immunol 1977; 119: 21472150.
  • 8
    Streilein JW. Neonatal tolerance. towards an immunogenetic definition of self. Immunol Rev 1979; 46: 123146.
  • 9
    Brent L, Brooks CG, Medawar PB, Simpson E. Transplantation tolerance. Br Med Bull 1976; 32: 101106.
  • 10
    Streilein JW. Neonatal tolerance of H-2 alloantigens: procuring graft acceptance the ‘old-fashioned’ way. Transplantation 1991; 52: 110.
  • 11
    Dorsch S, Roser B. Recirculating, suppressor T cells in transplantation tolerance. J Exp Med 1977; 145: 11441157.
  • 12
    Reiger M, Hilgert I. The involvement of a suppressor mechanism in neonatally induced allograft tolerance in mice. Immunogenetics 1977; 4: 6167.
  • 13
    Streilein JW, Gruchalla RS, Strome P. Neonatal transplantation tolerance results from two types of suppression acting during induction and at the effector phase. Transplant Proc 1981; 13: 578581.
  • 14
    Gruchalla RS, Streilein JW. Transplantation tolerance: clonal deletion, active suppression, or both? Transplant Proc 1981; 13: 574577.
  • 15
    Nossal GJV, Pike BL. Functional clonal deletion in immunological tolerance to major histocompatibility complex antigens. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 1981; 78: 38443847.
  • 16
    Streilein JW, Klein J. Neonatal tolerance induction across H-2 mutational disparity. induction and specificity of tolerance. Immunogenetics 1980; 10: 113123.
  • 17
    Streilein JW, Gruchalla RS. Analysis of neonatally induced tolerance of H-2 alloantigens. I. Adoptive transfer indicates that tolerance of class I and class II antigens is maintained by distinct mechanisms. Immunogenetics 1981; 12: 161173.
  • 18
    McCarthy SA, Bach FH. The cellular mechanism of maintenance of neonatally induced tolerance to H-2 class I antigens. J Immunol 1983; 131: 16761682.
  • 19
    Carnaud C, Ishizaka S, Stutman O. Early loss of precursors of CTL and IL2-producing cells in the development of neonatal tolerance to alloantigens. J Immunol 1984; 133: 4551.
  • 20
    Streilein JW, Mohler K, Wood PJ. Mechanisms of neonatal transplantation tolerance. Transplant Proc 1987; XIX (Suppl. 7): 8287.
  • 21
    Ishizaka S, Carnaud C, Stutman O. Differential susceptibility of cytotoxic and helper T cell precursors to neonatal tolerization to histocompatibility antigens. J Immunol 1986; 137: 20932099.
  • 22
    Powell TJ, Streilein JW. In vitro suppression of cytotoxic T cell generation by lymphocytes from mice rendered neonatally tolerant of class II MHC antigens. Transplantation 1991; 52: 383386.
  • 23
    Wood PJ, Strome PG, Streilein JW. Clonal analysis of helper and effector T-cell function in neonatal transplantation tolerance: clonal deletion of helper cells determines lack of in vitro responsiveness. Immunogenetics 1984; 20: 185196.
  • 24
    Mohler KM, Streilein JW. Tolerance to class II major histocompatibility complex molecules is maintained in the presence of endogenous, interleukin 2-producing, tolerogen-specific T lymphocytes. J Immunol 1987; 139: 22112219.
  • 25
    Mohler KM, Streilein JW. Lymphokine production by MLR-reactive lymphocytes obtained from normal mice and mice rendered tolerant of class II MHC antigens. Transplantation 1989; 47: 625633.
  • 26
    Burkly LC, Lo D, Kanagawa O, Brinster RL, Flavell RA. T-cell tolerance by clonal anergy in transgenic mice with nonlymphoid expression of MHC class II, I–E. Nature 1989; 342: 564566.
  • 27
    Inaba M, Inaba K, Hosono M et al. Distinct mechanisms of neonatal tolerance induced by dendritic cells and thymic B cells. J Exp Med 1991; 173: 549559.
  • 28
    Powell TJ, Streilein JW. Neonatal tolerance induction by class II alloantigens activates IL-4-secreting, tolerogen-responsive T cells. J Immunol 1990; 1443: 854859.
  • 29
    Chen N, Field EH. Enhanced type 2 and diminished type 1 cytokines in neonatal tolerance. Transplantation 1995; 59: 933941.
  • 30
    West LJ, Morris PJ, Wood KJ. Fetal liver haematopoietic cells and tolerance to organ allografts. Lancet 1994; 343: 148149.
  • 31
    West LJ, Morris PJ, Wood KJ. Neonatal induction of tolerance to cardiac allografts. Transplant Proc 1994; 26: 207208.
  • 32
    West LJ, Morris PJ, Wood KJ. Neonatally-induced transplantation tolerance to primarily-vascularised cardiac allografts is not donor-specific. Transplant Proc 1995; 27: 184185.
  • 33
    Corry RJ, Winn HJ, Russell PS. Primarily vascularised allografts of hearts in mice: the role of H-2D, H-2K and non-H-2 antigens in rejection. Transplantation 1973; 16: 343350.
  • 34
    Billingham RE, Medawar PB. The technique of free skin grafting in mammals. Br J Exp Biol 1951; 28: 385402.
  • 35
    Coligan JE. Current Protocols in Immunology. New York: Wiley Interscience; 1992. p. 3114.
  • 36
    Streilein JW, Strome P, Wood PJ. Failure of in vitro assays to predict accurately the existence of neonatally induced H-2 tolerance. Transplantation 1989; 48: 630634.
  • 37
    Tilney NL, Kupiec-Weglinski JW, Heidecke CD, Lear PA, Strom TB. Mechanisms of rejection and prolongation of vascularized organ allografts. Immunol Rev 1983; 77: 185216.
  • 38
    Steinmuller D. Tissue-specific and tissue-restricted histocompatibility antigens. Immunol Today 1984; 5: 234.
  • 39
    Sirak J, Orosz CG, Wakely E, VanBuskirk AM. Alloreactive delayed-type hypersensitivity in graft recipients: complexity of responses and divergence from acute rejection. Transplantation 1997; 63: 13001307.
  • 40
    VanBuskirk AM, Wakely ME, Sirak JH, Orosz CG. Patterns of allosensitization in allograft recipients: long-term cardiac allograft acceptance is associated with active alloantibody production in conjunction with active inhibition of alloreactive delayed-type hypersensitivity. Transplantation 1998; 65: 11151123.
  • 41
    Warren RP, Lofgreen JS, Steinmuller D. Factors responsible for the differential survival of heart and skin allografts in inbred rats. Transplantation 1973; 16: 458465.
  • 42
    Nakafusa Y, Goss JA, Mohanakumar T, Flye MW. Induction of donor-specific tolerance to cardiac but not skin or renal allografts by intrathymic injection of splenocyte alloantigen. Transplantation 1993; 55: 877882.
  • 43
    Moller F, Hoyt G, Farfan F, Starnes VA, Clayberger C. Cellular mechanisms underlying differential rejection of sequential heart and lung allografts in rats. Transplantation 1993; 55: 650655.
  • 44
    White E, Hildemann WH. Allografts in genetically defined rats. difference in survival between kidney and skin. Science 1968; 162: 12931295.
  • 45
    Moseley RV, Sheil RGR, Mitchell RM, Murray JE. Immunological relationships between skin and kidney homografts in dogs on immunosuppressive therapy. Transplantation 1966; 4: 678687.
  • 46
    Davis WC. Enhancement of heart allograft survival across H-2D differences. Transplantation 1979; 28: 405411.
  • 47
    Wang YC, Mayne A, Sell KW, Ahmed-Ansari A. The influence of MHC and non-MHC genes on the nature of murine cardiac allograft rejection I. Kinetic analysis of mononuclear cell infiltrate and MHC-class I/class II expression in donor tissue. Transplantation 1990; 50: 313324.
  • 48
    Skoskiewicz MJ, Colvin RB, Schneeberger EE, Russell PS. Widespread and selective induction of major histocompatibility complex-determined antigens in vivo by gamma interferon. J Exp Med 1985; 162: 16451664.
  • 49
    Boyse EA, Old LJ. Loss of skin allograft tolerance by chimeras. Transplantation 1968; 6: 619.
  • 50
    Tyler JD, Steinmuller D. Evidence of cell-mediated cytotoxicity to skin-specific alloantigens on mouse epidermal cells. Transplant Proc 1981; 13 (1 Part 2): 10821085.
  • 51
    Steinmuller D, Lofgreen JS. Differential survival of skin and heart allografts in radiation chimeras provides further evidence for Sk histocompatibility antigen. Nature 1974; 248: 796797.
  • 52
    Lance EM, Boyse EA, Cooper S, Carswell EA. Rejection of skin allografts by irradiation chimeras: evidence for skin–specific transplantation barrier. Transplant Proc 1971; 3: 864868.
  • 53
    Tuohy VKYuM, Yin L, Kawczak JA et al. The epitope spreading cascade during progression of experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis and multiple sclerosis. Immunol Rev 1998; 164: 93100.
  • 54
    Mamula MJ. Epitope spreading. the role of self peptides and autoantigen processing by B lymphocytes. Immunol Rev 1998; 164: 231239.
  • 55
    Wong W, Morris PJ, Wood KJ. Pretransplant administration of a single donor class I major histocompatibility complex molecule is sufficient for the indefinite survival of fully allogeneic cardiac allografts: evidence for linked epitope suppression. Transplantation 1997; 63: 14901494.
  • 56
    Yang L, DuTemple B, Gorczynski RM, Levy G, Zhang L. Evidence for epitope spreading and active suppression in skin graft tolerance after donor-specific transfusion. Transplantation 1999; 67: 14041410.
  • 57
    Holan V, Mitchison NA. Haplotype-specific suppressor T cells mediating linked suppression of immune responses elicited by third-party H-2 alloantigens. Eur J Immunol 1983; 13: 652657.
  • 58
    Burnet FM. The Clonal Selection Theory of Acquired Immunity. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press; 1959.
  • 59
    Pearson TC, Bushell AR, Darby CR, West LJ, Morris PJ, Wood KJ. Lymphocyte changes associated with prolongation of cardiac allograft survival in adult mice using anti-CD4 monoclonal antibody. Clin Exp Immunol 1993; 92: 211217.
  • 60
    Pearson TC, Darby CR, Bushell AR, West LJ, Morris PJ, Wood KJ. The assessment of transplantation tolerance induced by anti-CD4 monoclonal antibody in the murine model. Transplantation 1993; 55: 361367.
  • 61
    Bogue M, Gilfillan S, Benoist C, Mathis D. Regulation of N-region diversity in antigen receptors through thymocyte differentiation and thymus ontogeny. Proc Natl Acad Sci 1992; 89: 1101111015.
  • 62
    Bogue M, Mossmann H, Stauffer U, Benoist C, Mathis D. The level of N-region diversity in T cell receptors is not pre-ordained in the stem cell. Eur J Immunol 1993; 23: 11851188.