• 1
    Qian S, Thai NL, Lu L, Fung JJ, Thomson AW. Liver transplant tolerance: mechanistic insights from animal models, with particular reference to the mouse. Transplant Rev 1997; 11: 151164.
  • 2
    Calne RY, Sells RA, Pena JR et al. Induction of immunological tolerance by porcine liver allografts. Nature 1969; 223: 472476.
  • 3
    Kamada N, Davies HS, Roser B. Reversal of transplantation immunity by liver grafting. Nature 1981; 292: 840842.
  • 4
    Ramos HC, Reyes J, Abu-Elmagd K et al. Weaning of immunosuppression in long-term liver transplant recipients. Transplantation 1995; 59: 212217.
  • 5
    Mazariegos GV, Reyes J, Marino IR et al. Weaning of immunosuppression in liver transplant recipients. Transplantation 1997; 63: 243249.
  • 6
    Wood K, Farges O. Tolerance. In: NeubergerJ, AdamsD, eds. Immunology of Liver Transplantation. Boston, MA: Little Brown & Co; 1993. p. 139.
  • 7
    Kamada N. Animal models of liver transplantation and their clinical relevance. In: NeubergerJ, AdamsD, eds. Immunology of Liver Transplantation. Boston, MA: Little Brown & Co; 1993. p. 161.
  • 8
    Starzl TE, Demetris AJ, Murase N, Ildstad S, Ricordi C, Trucco M. Cell migration, chimerism, and graft acceptance [see comments]. Lancet 1992; 339: 15791582.
  • 9
    Starzl TE, Demetris AJ, Trucco M et al. Cell migration and chimerism after whole-organ transplantation: the basis of graft acceptance. Hepatology 1993; 17: 11271152.
  • 10
    Lu L, Rudert WA, Qian S et al. Growth of donor-derived dendritic cells from the bone marrow of murine liver allograft recipients in response to granulocyte/macrophage colony-stimulating factor. J Exp Med 1995; 182: 379387.
  • 11
    Thomson AW, Lu L. Are dendritic cells the key to liver transplant tolerance? Immunol Today 1999; 20: 2732.
  • 12
    Mazariegos GV, Reyes J, Webber SA et al. Cytokine gene polymorphisms in children successfully withdrawn from immunosuppression after liver transplantation. Transplantation 2002; 73: 13421345.
  • 13
    Larsen CP, Morris PJ, Austyn JM. Migration of dendritic leukocytes from cardiac allografts into host spleens. A novel pathway for initiation of rejection. J Exp Med 1990; 171: 307314.
  • 14
    Lechler RI, Batchelor JR. Restoration of immunogenicity to passenger cell-depleted kidney allografts by the addition of donor strain dendritic cells. J Exp Med 1982; 155: 3141.
  • 15
    Banchereau J, Steinman RM. Dendritic cells and the control of immunity. Nature 1998; 392: 245252.
  • 16
    Steinman RM, Turley S, Mellman I, Inaba K. The induction of tolerance by dendritic cells that have captured apoptotic cells. J Exp Med 2000; 191: 411416.
  • 17
    Morelli AE, Hackstein H, Thomson AW. Potential of tolerogenic dendritic cells for transplantation. Semin Immunol 2001; 13: 323335.
  • 18
    Coates PT, Thomson AW. Dendritic cells, tolerance induction and transplant outcome. Am J Transplant 2002; 2: 299307.
  • 19
    Romani N, Gruner S, Brang D et al. Proliferating dendritic cell progenitors in human blood. J Exp Med 1994; 180: 8393.
  • 20
    Kohrgruber N, Halanek N, Groger M et al. Survival, maturation, and function of CD11c– and CD11c+ peripheral blood dendritic cells are differentially regulated by cytokines. J Immunol 1999; 163: 32503259.
  • 21
    Robinson SP, Patterson S, English N, Davies D, Knight SC, Reid CD. Human peripheral blood contains two distinct lineages of dendritic cells. Eur J Immunol 1999; 29: 27692778.
  • 22
    Siegal FP, Kadowaki N, Shodell M et al. The nature of the principal type 1 interferon-producing cells in human blood. Science 1999; 284: 18351837.
  • 23
    Cella M, Jarrossay D, Facchetti F et al. Plasmacytoid monocytes migrate to inflamed lymph nodes and produce large amounts of type I interferon. Nat Med 1999; 5: 919923.
  • 24
    Grouard G, Rissoan MC, Filgueira L, Durand I, Banchereau J, Liu YJ. The enigmatic plasmacytoid T cells develop into dendritic cells with interleukin (IL)-3 and CD40-ligand. J Exp Med 1997; 185: 11011111.
  • 25
    Rissoan MC, Soumelis V, Kadowaki N et al. Reciprocal control of T helper cell and dendritic cell differentiation. Science 1999; 283: 11831186.
  • 26
    Liu YJ, Kanzler H, Soumelis V, Gilliet M. Dendritic cell lineage, plasticity and cross-regulation. Nat Immunol 2001; 2: 585589.
  • 27
    Lee JI, Ganster RW, Geller DA, Burckart GJ, Thomson AW, Lu L. Cyclosporine A inhibits the expression of costimulatory molecules on in vitro-generated dendritic cells: association with reduced nuclear translocation of nuclear factor kappa B. Transplantation 1999; 68: 12551263.
  • 28
    Woltman AM, De Fijter JW, Kamerling SW, Paul LC, Daha MR, Van Kooten C. The effect of calcineurin inhibitors and corticosteroids on the differentiation of human dendritic cells. Eur J Immunol 2000; 30: 18071812.
  • 29
    Mehling A, Grabbe S, Voskort M, Schwarz T, Luger TA, Beissert S. Mycophenolate mofetil impairs the maturation and function of murine dendritic cells. J Immunol 2000; 165: 23742381.
  • 30
    Nakano H, Yanagita M, Gunn MD. CD11c (+) B220 (+) Gr-1 (+) cells in mouse lymph nodes and spleen display characteristics of plasmacytoid dendritic cells. J Exp Med 2001; 194: 11711178.
  • 31
    Bjorck P. Isolation and characterization of plasmacytoid dendritic cells from Flt3 ligand and granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor-treated mice. Blood 2001; 98: 35203526.
  • 32
    Olweus J, BitMansour A, Warnke R et al. Dendritic cell ontogeny: a human dendritic cell lineage of myeloid origin. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 1997; 94: 1255112556.
  • 33
    Lu L, McCaslin D, Starzl TE, Thomson AW. Bone marrow-derived dendritic cell progenitors (NLDC 145+, MHC class II+, B7–1dim, B7–2) induce alloantigen-specific hyporesponsiveness in murine T lymphocytes. Transplantation 1995; 60: 15391545.
  • 34
    Jonuleit H, Schmitt E, Schuler G, Knop J, Enk AH. Induction of interleukin 10-producing, nonproliferating CD4+ T cells with regulatory properties by repetitive stimulation with allogeneic immature human dendritic cells. J Exp Med 2000; 192: 12131222.
  • 35
    Dhodapkar MV, Steinman RM, Krasovsky J, Munz C, Bhardwaj N. Antigen-specific inhibition of effector T cell function in humans after injection of immature dendritic cells. J Exp Med 2001; 193: 233238.
  • 36
    Sorg RV, Kogler G, Wernet P. Identification of cord blood dendritic cells as an immature CD11c– population. Blood 1999; 93: 23022307.
  • 37
    Arpinati M, Green CL, Heimfeld S, Heuser JE, Anasetti C. Granulocyte-colony stimulating factor mobilizes T helper 2-inducing dendritic cells. Blood 2000; 95: 24842490.
  • 38
    Kuwana M, Kaburaki J, Wright TM, Kawakami Y, Ikeda Y. Induction of antigen-specific human CD4 (+) T cell anergy by peripheral blood DC2 precursors. Eur J Immunol 2001; 31: 25472557.
  • 39
    Rugeles MT, Aitouche A, Zeevi A et al. Evidence for the presence of multilineage chimerism and progenitors of donor dendritic cells in the peripheral blood of bone marrow-augmented organ transplant recipients. Transplantation 1997; 64: 735741.
  • 40
    Carrodeguas L, Orosz CG, Waldman WJ, Sedmak DD, Adams PW, VanBuskirk AM. Trans vivo analysis of human delayed-type hypersensitivity reactivity. Hum Immunol 1999; 60: 640651.
  • 41
    Heeger PS, Greenspan NS, Kuhlenschmidt S et al. Pretransplant frequency of donor-specific, IFN-gamma-producing lymphocytes is a manifestation of immunologic memory and correlates with the risk of posttransplant rejection episodes. J Immunol 1999; 163: 22672275.