Orthotopic liver transplantation is the only definitive therapeutic option in patients with primary sclerosing cholangitis (PSC) and end-stage liver disease. However, PSC recurs in up to 20% of patients transplanted for this indication. To date, no patient has been reported to develop cholangiocarcinoma (CCA) post-transplant, without biliary tract cancer having been present pretransplant. Here, we report recurrent PSC complicated by de-novo CCA in a 31-year-old man transplanted for PSC 8 years earlier. Cholangiocarcinoma was confirmed using a combination of computed tomography, cholangiography, positron emission tomography and histological examination of biliary cytology. He has since been successfully re-transplanted following preoperative chemo-radiotherapy. No viable tumor was identified in the explanted liver. This case establishes that long-term complications associated with PSC and biliary-enteric surgery such as CCA may become apparent in new grafts post-transplant.